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NORTHUMBERLAND, the most northern of the counties of England, is a maritime shire, being bounded on the east by the North Sea or German Ocean, on the west by the county of Cumberland and Roxburghshire in Scotland, on the north by the lowlands of Scotland, from which it is separated by the river Tweed, and on the south by Durham, from which it is separated by the rivers Tyne and Derwent; its length from north to south is about 62 miles, and the breadth in the widest part is 45 miles, but it diminishes in width as it approaches the north until its junction with Berwickshire it becomes nearly a point. The county includes Holy Island, near Berwick-on-Tweed, with which it is connected by a narrow isthmus about two miles in length.
Transcribed from Post Office Directory of Durham and Northumberland, 1879