Manchester (The Blessed Virgin, or St. Mary)

MANCHESTER (The Blessed Virgin, or St. Mary), a borough, city, and parish, in the hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster; containing, in the year 1841, 353,390 inhabitants, of whom 163,856 are within the township of Manchester, 31 miles (E. by N.) from Liverpool, 54 (S. E. by S.) from Lancaster, and 186 (N. W. by N.) from London. The origin of this city, which is so pre-eminent for the extent of its trade and the importance of its manufactures, may be traced to a period of remote antiquity. In the time of the Druids it was distinguished as one of the chief stations of their priests, and was celebrated for the privilege of sanctuary attached to its altar, which in the British language was styled Meyne, signifying "a stone." Prior to the Christian era it was one of the principal seats of the Brigantes, who had a castle or stronghold, called Mancenion, or "the place of tents," near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. The site of the castle, still designated the "Castle Field," was by the Romans, on their conquest of this part of the island under Agricola, about the year 79, selected as the station of the Cohors Prima Frisiorum, and, with reference to the original British name, called by them Mancunium; hence the Saxon name Manceastre, from which the modern appellation of Manchester is obviously derived. This station was for nearly four centuries occupied by the Romans, and was amply provided with every thing requisite for the accommodation and subsistence of the garrison established in it, having also a water-mill on the Medlock, at some distance below the town, upon a site that still retains the name of Knott Mill. The station included a quadrangular area 500 feet in length and 400 in width, the interior not exactly level, but rising from the centre towards the sides, where a rampart of earth sloping inwards was raised from the ground surrounding the inclosure, which was thus made lower than the site of the castrum. On the summit of this rampart a wall was originally built, extending round the inclosure, and on one side was placed the castle or fort; but very little of the foundation of the wall is at present discernible, the few remaining portions being under ground, and the greater part of the site covered with modern buildings. From this station, as from a common centre, Roman roads branched off to Cambodunum, Eboracum, Condate, Rigodunum, Veratinum, and Rerigonium. In the vicinity of the aboriginal settlement, which eventually obtained the name of Aldport, Roman urns and other vessels, stones inscribed to centurions of the cohort, votive altars, coins, fibulæ, and lachrymatories, have been found at various times; and without the vallum, foundations of Roman buildings, and other vestiges of antiquity, have been frequently discovered.

After the departure of the Romans, the fort of Mancunium was taken from the Britons, about the year 488, by a party of the Saxons, who had forcibly established themselves in this part of the kingdom: they placed a garrison in it, which, however, surrendered to the British, who retained possession whilst Arthur Pendragon was prosecuting his victories. In 620, it was captured by Edwin, King of Northumbria, who annexed it to his dominions; and soon afterwards a colony of Angles settled here. In 627, the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by the preaching of Paulinus, a missionary employed by Gregory I., and a Christian church was built, and dedicated to St. Michael. Manchester having been taken by the Danes, was wrested from their possession about 920 by Edward the Elder, who repaired and fortified the castle, and rebuilt the town, which had been almost destroyed in the assaults of the invaders, placing in it a strong garrison of his own soldiers, on account of its being a frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. It was raised to the distinction of a burgh, with extensive privileges, and for some time continued highly prosperous; but being exposed to repeated attacks, and having suffered so much injury in the wars between the Northumbrians and the Danes, it appears at the time of the Conquest, notwithstanding its enlargement by Edward, to have been in every respect inferior to Salford, a Saxon settlement on the opposite bank of the Irwell, which, being a royal demesne, had risen into importance, and imparted its name to the hundred. In the Norman survey we find that Manchester contained two churches, but it is not otherwise mentioned as a place of any note.

Soon after the Conquest, the town came into the possession of Albert de Gresley, whose descendant Robert, the fourth lord of Manchester, obtained for it, in the reign of Henry III., the grant of a fair on the eve and festival of St. Matthew. In the reign of Edward I., the barons, in order to raise a great number of men to serve in the army destined for the invasion of Scotland, conferred several privileges on their vassals; and Thomas de Gresley, sixth baron of Manchester, upon that occasion granted to the inhabitants what has been emphatically called the Magna Charta of Manchester. This charter, which was granted on the 14th of May, in the year 1301, among other privileges, confers the right of choosing a boroughreeve; the liberty of disposing of lands of inheritance according to pleasure, reserving only to the heir in such cases, the prior right of purchase; the power of arresting for debt within the borough the persons of knights, priests, or clerks; and various other privileges. The baron of Manchester was thrice summoned to parliament by writ in the reign of this monarch, by whom he was made a knight of the Bath; and was one of the barons who, in the reign of Edward II., conspired against Piers Gaveston. About seventy years before this, Salford had become a free borough by charter from Ranulph de Blundeville, Earl of Chester.

In 1352, the manufacture of "Manchester cottons," a kind of woollen-cloth made from the fleece in an unprepared state, was introduced. In that year, numerous Flemish artisans, who had been invited into England by Edward III., settled in the town, where, finding every requisite advantage, they brought the woollen manufacture to a considerable degree of perfection; and though interrupted by the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, and subsequently in the reign of Edward VI., by a dreadful malady called the sweating sickness, the trade had in the reign of Elizabeth become of such importance, that one of the queen's aulnagers (officers appointed to examine, and affix the seal to, manufactured cloth) was stationed here, in 1565. During the progress of the Reformation, an ecclesiastical commission for the diocese of Chester was established at Manchester, and numbers of popish recusants, from various parts of Lancashire, were imprisoned in the New Fleet here, which appears to have been erected about that time, and probably for that purpose. The commissioners were, Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon; Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York; the Earl of Derby; and Dr. Chadderton, Bishop of Chester, who then resided in the episcopal palace at Manchester, but, in consequence of frequent disputes between his servants and the inhabitants, removed to Chester. The commissioners, though principally engaged in promoting the reformed religion, and in the detection and punishment of popish recusants, published, during their sittings at Manchester, a declaration against pipers and minstrels attending bear and bull baitings, and against the "superstitious ringing of bells, wakes, festivals, and other amusements;" to counteract the influence of which prohibition, James I. published his celebrated Book of Sports. Upon the threatened invasion by Philip of Spain, the town supplied 144 men armed with bills and pikes, 38 archers, and 38 arquebusiers, to assist in repelling the "Invincible Armada."

During the Parliamentary war, Manchester was the scene of much obstinate contention. The commissioners of array visited it, to demand ammunition for the use of the king; but the town having been previously secured for the parliament by Ralph Assheton, one of the representatives of the county, the inhabitants refused to surrender; and Lord Strange attempting to enter with a considerable force, they took up arms, and were joined by numbers from the adjacent country, when a skirmish occurred, in which several men on both sides were killed. This event, which was regarded by the house of commons as the commencement of the war, was announced by the Speaker as "terrible news from the north." The inhabitants, apprehending a more serious attack, fortified the town; and the king, having set up his standard at Nottingham, sent Lord Strange with 4000 infantry, seven pieces of cannon, and some cavalry, to reduce it. After an obstinate conflict of several days, during which it was defended by Captain Bradshaw, aided by Lieutenant-Colonel Rosworm, an able German engineer, Lord Strange being summoned on the death of the Earl of Derby to join the king, whose head-quarters were then at Shrewsbury, withdrew his forces, and raised the siege. To guard against future assaults, the fortifications which had been hastily thrown up were completed and enlarged; and in 1643, Sir Thomas Fairfax entered the town, which now became the head-quarters of the parliamentary army stationed in Lancashire. It was again summoned by the Earl of Newcastle, at the head of 10,000 or 12,000 men; but being unsuccessful, the earl took the route to Hull, in pursuit of Fairfax. During the protectorate of Cromwell, Manchester, in obedience to the Protector's writ to the high sheriff of Lancaster, made two successive returns of a member to serve in parliament, in common with other towns which did not subsequently exercise the elective franchise. In 1652 the walls were thrown down, the fortifications demolished, and the gates carried away and sold; a measure that appears to have originated in its growing commercial importance, and its increase in wealth and population. The restoration of Charles II. was celebrated here with the most splendid pomp and ceremony; the utmost festivity and rejoicings took place, and the public conduits were made to flow with wine in copious streams. In 1715, a tumultuous assembly headed by one Syddall, a barber, demolished the Independent chapel in Acres Fields, at that time the only dissenting place of worship in the town, and proceeded to commit other depredations; but the insurrection was quelled, and Syddall, with several of his accomplices, was committed to Lancaster gaol. On his liberation, he joined the rebels in Preston, and being again taken prisoner, was sent to this town and executed.

In 1745, Prince Charles Edward, who the year before had visited Manchester, where he was hospitably entertained for several weeks at Ancoats Hall, the mansion of Sir Edward Mosley, Bart., entered the county of Lancaster at the head of an army of 6000 men, and advanced to this town, with a view to recruit his forces, and to raise supplies of men, arms, and money. On November 28th, the young Pretender took up his quarters in the house of Mr. Dickenson, in Market-street, from that circumstance called the Palace, and issued a proclamation requiring all persons who had any duties to pay, or any of the public money in their hands, to pay the same to his secretary. The sum of £3000 was levied in money; from 200 to 300 men were raised for the service, and many horses were put under requisition for mounting the cavalry and drawing the baggage. On December 1st, the rebel army quitted Manchester, marching southward to Derby, which they reached on the 4th; but to avoid the danger of being inclosed by the armies of Marshal Wade and the Duke of Cumberland, they retreated to Manchester, and, continuing their march to the north, reached Carlisle on the 10th. In 1759, an act of parliament was passed for discharging the inhabitants from their obligation to grind corn and other grain at the school mill on the river Irk, a custom which had prevailed from a remote period, and had frequently excited a strong spirit of popular discontent. By this act the inhabitants were released from every obligation, except that of grinding malt, which is still retained; and though the sum paid to the feoffees of the mill is very moderate, yet the compulsory clause of grinding malt has induced almost all the brewers to establish themselves in townships which, though adjoining to, and within the immediate vicinity of, the town, are not subject to that obligation. Christian, King of Denmark, on his tour through England in 1768, took up his abode in the town, at the Bull inn. In 1773, the Russian princess, Czartoriski, arrived here from Birmingham, to inspect the aqueducts and excavations at Worsley, and during her stay visited the principal factories. In 1805, the Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria, accompanied by a retinue of scientific men, spent some time here; and in 1817, the Grand Duke Nicholas, now Emperor of Russia, honoured the town with a visit. The Duke of Bordeaux visited Manchester in the winter of 1843–44, the King of Saxony in 1844, and the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia in 1846.

The city of Manchester stands on the river Irwell, which here receives the streams of the Irk and the Medlock, and on the north-west bank of which is the borough of Salford, connected, by means of six bridges, with Manchester, and forming an integral part of it. Of these bridges, the most ancient, which had existed from time immemorial, was rebuilt in the reign of Edward III., and remained, a monument of early art, until the erection on its site of the Victoria bridge, which was completed in 1839, at a cost, including the approaches, of £20,800: the Strangeways iron bridge was erected in 1817; the Albert bridge was opened 26th September, 1844. Over the Medlock are nine bridges, in various parts of the town; that leading from Oxford-street crosses the stream in an oblique direction. There are also seven bridges over the Irk, of which six are very low, and subject to be flooded at high water; the seventh is a lofty structure of three arches, and a great ornament, connecting a line of road from the extremity of Millerstreet with what was anciently Strangeways Park, and forming a new entrance into the town, which avoids the steep ascent of the Red Bank, and the dangerous turn in the old road from Scotland-bridge. Exclusively of these, are several smaller bridges over the Shooter's brook, and not less than thirty across the numerous branches of the canals which intersect the town, besides numerous railway-bridges over the rivers and canals.

The older part of the city contains several ancient houses (which, however, are fast disappearing); and the streets in this quarter, with the exception of such as have been improved under various acts of parliament, are inconveniently narrow. The more modern parts contain many spacious streets, in which are respectable houses; but the general plan of the town, notwithstanding, seems to have been more adapted to the accommodation of its extended trade than to the display of elegance and symmetry in its general appearance. Cotton-mills, factories, and warehouses of immense extent, have been erected in those portions previously occupied by the most pleasant dwelling-houses, and almost every part is crowded with the cottages of families employed in the different works. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas: they were formerly under the direction of 240 commissioners, appointed by an act passed in the 9th of George IV., for cleansing, paving, lighting, watching, and regulating the town; but in 1843 an act was obtained, transferring the powers vested in these commissioners to the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses. Other acts were passed in 1844 and 1845, for the improvement of the city. The inhabitants are supplied with water by the Manchester and Salford Company, established by an act of parliament, in 1809; the water is conveyed by pipes from reservoirs at Beswick and Gorton, of which the latter covers more than fifty acres of ground, excavated in 1825. In the year 1847 an act was passed for a better supply of water, the works to be constructed by the corporation. Salford was formerly included in the same jurisdiction as Manchester, with respect to its police; but by the act procured in the 9th of George IV., they were separated, and Salford is now governed by a distinct code of regulations, under an act of the 11th of George IV. The municipal borough of Manchester in 1846 contained 41,606 dwelling-houses, 5385 dwellingcellars, 4872 shops used as dwellings, 3813 warehouses and workshops, 123 factories, 48 foundries, 16 banks, 14 markets, 4 railway stations, and 5 gas stations.

The environs, in some parts, particularly in Broughton, abound with scenery pleasingly diversified; and in the neighbourhood are many handsome ranges of building, and numerous elegant villas. Ardwick Green, in the centre of which is a fine sheet of water, is surrounded with respectable residences; and Salford-crescent, occupying an elevated site, commands a beautiful view of the windings of the Irwell, with the fertile valleys on the opposite bank. Close to the Irwell are several successive tiers of houses, which rise from the margin of the river; on the Irk is Gibraltar, an irregular cluster of rural and picturesque cottages. The scheme for providing three public parks for the population of Manchester, was set on foot in June 1844; and a fund of £32,000 having been raised by subscription, exclusively of a grant of £3000 from government, the parks were opened, in August 1846. The Peel Park, situated in Salford, within the western environs, on the banks of the Irwell, is the nearest to the centre of the town, and presents a great diversity of surface. It comprises altogether 32 acres, was formerly called Lark Hill, and was private property: the cost, including a large mansion-house, was £10,375. The Queen's Park, bounded on the east by the Rochdale road, near the second milestone, slopes by easy gradations towards a kind of ravine on the west; it comprises 30 acres, and is more finished and more beautiful in its details, than the Peel Park, the trees and shrubberies having previously attained a more mature growth. The cost, with the mansion of Hardham Hall, was £7250. The Philips Park, nearly two miles east of the Exchange, is bolder and more varied than the other parks, consisting of high knolls, with much broken ground, and a pretty little amphitheatre sloping down to the Medlock: there are, however, few trees. The cost of this park was £7300; the area is 31 acres.

The Literary and Philosophical Society was founded in 1781; gold and silver medals are awarded for the best dissertations on particular subjects, and the society has published seven volumes of Transactions, in the English, French, and German languages, which are much circulated on the continent. The Agricultural Society, consisting of members residing within thirty miles, was established in 1767, and is one of the earliest institutions of the kind in England. A part of Chetham's Hospital is appropriated as a Library, to which, under certain regulations, the public enjoy free admission: the founder bequeathed £1000 to be vested in land, which fund, by the management of trustees, has considerably accumulated; and the library now contains more than 25,000 volumes, some valuable manuscripts, a collection of prints, and several natural and artificial curiosities. The Portico, an elegant edifice of Runcorn stone, of the Ionic order, erected by subscription in 1806, at an expense of £7000, contains a library of above 14,000 volumes, committee, news, and reading rooms, and other offices. Among the other libraries, are, the Old Subscription Library, in Ducie-place, established in the year 1765, now containing 20,000 volumes, and supported by 400 members; the Library for Promoting General Knowledge, in Newall's-buildings, Market-street, established in 1771, revived in 1802, and now comprising upwards of 10,000 volumes; and the Subscription Library, founded in the year 1792, and containing 13,000 volumes. The Law Library was instituted by the members of that profession, in 1820. The Society for Promoting the Study of Natural History was projected in 1821, and rapidly attained its present state of maturity and importance: the buildings, in Peter-street, are of brick, with a handsome stone portico, and contain an extensive and valuable museum, a library of works on natural history, a council-room, and apartments for the librarian and keeper. The Royal Institution, embracing a variety of objects connected with the pursuits of literature and science, and the cultivation of the fine arts, originated with a few publicspirited individuals in 1823, and was soon honoured with public, and finally with royal, patronage. The building, which was erected from a design by Barry, is of a durable stone from the vicinity of Colne, and forms a splendid addition to the architectural ornaments of the town. The principal elevation, towards Mosleystreet, has a noble portico of six lofty columns of the Ionic order, supporting a rich entablature and pediment, on each side of which are columns and pilasters connecting the centre with the wings. The whole cost of the pile was estimated at about £50,000. The Athenæum, an institution for the benefit of young men in the middle rank of life, is another handsome building of stone, erected close to the Royal Institution, also from a design by Barry; it comprises a theatre for lectures, readingroom, &c., with a library of above 13,000 volumes: there are 2600 members. The Botanical and Horticultural Institution was founded in 1828: its garden, about two miles from the Exchange, on the new Stretford road, comprising about sixteen acres, contains a great variety of green-house, herbaceous, Alpine, American, rock, and medicinal plants; the entrance is a fine structure of the Ionic order, and cost about £2000. The Mechanics' Institute was established in 1824, and a building was erected in 1827 at an expense of £7000. The Geological Society, instituted in 1838, now consists of upwards of 220 members. The Statistical Society held its first meeting on the 2nd of September, 1833, and is the first institution of the kind established in England. The Academy of Arts was established by some of the leading artists, on the plan of mutual instruction, in 1845.

The present Theatre Royal was opened in September 1845: it will hold 2147 persons, and has a front of the Corinthian order. The Amphitheatre, or, as it is now called, the Queen's Theatre, was built in 1753, for a principal theatre, but being found too small, was rebuilt by act of parliament in 1775, and having been burnt down in 1789, was again rebuilt in 1790. A third theatre is called the City Theatre Royal. The Gentlemen's Private Subscription Concerts were established in 1777, when a room adapted to the accommodation of 800 auditors was built in Fountain-street, which at length proving too small, a new concert room was erected in 1829, for the reception of 1200 subscribers, in Lower Mosley-street, at an expense of £7000; the entrance is through a handsome lofty portico of six columns of the Corinthian order, supporting a rich entablature and pediment. The Gentlemen's Glee Club was founded in 1830, and is well known for the talent of its members, and its prize glee compositions. The Choral Society, established in 1833, consists of about 200 members; it holds its meetings in a large room in the Royal Institution. The Assembly-rooms, Mosley-street, were erected in 1792, and form a capacious suite of rooms. The first of a proposed series of triennial musical festivals was attempted here, with complete success, in 1828: oratorios were performed in the collegiate church, and miscellaneous concerts and dress balls were given in the theatre and assembly-rooms; the performances combined the first musical talent in the country, and after paying all expenses, more than £5000 were distributed among the different charitable institutions. The Races, which were established in 1730, commence on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, and continue to the end of the week: the present fine course was laid out in 1847, and is situated in Broughton Meadows; the stand cost £8000, and £2000 were spent in the improvement of the ground, which is held on lease.

The improvement in the various branches of the trade and manufactures of Manchester has been uniformly progressive, and justly entitles it to be considered one of the most extensive and prosperous cities in the world. Its staple trade is the cotton manufacture, which, in all its different ramifications is carried on to an extent almost incredible. The town had obtained considerable eminence for its manufacture of woollen goods, called "Manchester cottons," as before mentioned, in the reign of Edward III.; and in that of Charles I. the linen and cotton trade had made some progress. In the Treasure of Traffic, published by Lewis Roberts, in 1641, Manchester is said to have purchased linen-yarn from Ireland, and cotton-wool from London, and to have sent the goods woven to London and other places for sale. About the year 1740, the manufacturers residing here employed agents in various parts of the country to procure a supply of raw cotton, which was manufactured by the spindle and the distaff, in the cottages of the workmen, chiefly into fustians, thicksets, dimities, and jeans, to which were added cotton thicksets, goods figured in the loom, and subsequently cotton velvets, velveteens, and strong fancy cords. About the year 1760, these goods, which had till then been made only for home consumption, found markets on the continents of Europe and America; and the quantity of weft produced in the whole of Lancashire, by about 50,000 spindles worked by hand, was insufficient to keep the weavers in the town of Manchester constantly employed, and to afford a supply adequate to the increasing demand. Recourse was now had to the aid of machinery, and Mr. John Kay invented the instrument called the pucking peg, by the assistance of which the weaver was not only enabled to produce twice the quantity of work, but also to weave cloths of any width. The facility thus given to the weaving department caused a corresponding increase in the demand for yarn, and Mr. Thomas Highs, in conjunction with Mr. Kay, invented the spinning-jenny, the powers of which were greatly augmented by the improvements of Mr. Hargreaves, whose success, exciting the apprehensions of the hand-workmen, led to the destruction of his machinery, and his retreat to Nottingham, where he died in indigence. Mr. Highs continued to make the spinning-jennies for sale, and also invented the water-frame, or throstle, for spinning twist by means of rollers; and these machines were subsequently improved under Sir Richard Arkwright, whose exclusive patent right was annulled by a decision of the court of king's bench, in 1785, when the privilege of using such machinery was thrown open to the public. The late Sir Robert Peel, Bart., assisted by Mr. Hargreaves, first brought the cylindrical carding-engines into use, and effected many improvements in the application of machinery to the cotton manufacture, by the adoption of which, aided by the powers of the steamengine, the quantity of goods of all descriptions made in the town has been prodigiously increased.

Every process of that manufacture is carried on to a very considerable extent, but the branch of it for which Manchester is most distinguished is the spinning, in which department alone there are upwards of one hundred factories in the town and its vicinity. The powerloom is a recent invention, originating with the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, of Holland House, in the county of Kent, who, after repeated attempts, ultimately succeeded in establishing a factory upon that principle at Doncaster, and was indemnified by parliament for the losses he had sustained in the course of his experiments. Mr. Grimshaw, of Manchester, adopting Mr. Cartwright's plan, established a factory in which were 500 power-looms, but the building being destroyed by fire, the design was for a time abandoned. The difficulties which had impeded the general adoption of this invention were finally removed by the aid of Mr. Johnson's machine for dressing the warps, and in 1806 the use of the power-loom was again introduced, with complete success. The cotton-factories, in several of which the whole process of the manufacture, from the introduction of the raw material to its completion, is carried on, are immense ranges of building, from six to eight stories in height; some of them employing from 1800 to 2000 persons each. The making of muslin was first attempted about the year 1780, at which time the machine called the mule was introduced into the spinning factories, and to such a degree of perfection has this branch of manufacture been brought, that the muslins of Manchester are little inferior to those of India. The silk manufacture has of late years been revived, under very favourable circumstances, and is rapidly improving; the number of mills established is considerable, and the silks manufactured are as remarkable for the beauty of their texture as those of Spitalfields, or of France. The principal articles at present made in the town are, velvets, fustians, jeans, ticking, checks, ginghams, nankeens, diaper, quilting, calico, muslins, muslinets, cambric handkerchiefs, small wares, silks, and, in fact, every variety of cotton and silk goods. There are also extensive, Bleaching-grounds, and works for Printing and Dyeing, and for every other department of the manufactures; and in addition to what may be considered the staple manufactures of the town, are numerous others dependent on them, such as that of machinery of all kinds, for which there are large Forges, Foundries, &c.: the manufacture of steam-engines is very extensive. The town has several laboratories for the making of Oil of vitriol, and other chymical productions used in the different processes of the trade, for bleaching, dyeing, and the like. In the vicinity are mills for the manufacture of Paper of all descriptions, from the coarsest kind, for packages, to the finest kinds of writing and printing paper, all of which have been brought to a high degree of perfection, and are manufactured on a large scale. There are extensive Hat manufactories, which have flourished for many years; and various other branches of manufacture, which have all improved with the increasing trade of the town, afford employment to the inhabitants. Engraving, as connected with the printing of calico, muslin, and cotton goods, is extensively carried on; and there are Saw-mills on a very extended scale. According to a statement published a few years ago by the Manchester Statistical Society, steam-power equal to 6036 horses is employed in Manchester and Salford, in cotton spinning and weaving; 1277-horse power in bleaching, dyeing, printing; 734 in machine-making, foundries, &c.; 341 in silk manufactures; 306 in cottonthread and small wares, tape, &c.; 206 in collieries; 155 in saw-mills; 81 in engraving for printing calico; 80 in fustian-shearing; 78 in breweries; 70 in flaxspinning; 66 in chemical works; 58 in woollen works; and 436 in miscellaneous operations; making a grand total of steam-power equal to 9924 horses. In the year 1847, there were 174 cotton-factories and other large works in the municipal borough of Manchester, employing when in full operation about 40,000 hands. For the purchase of the diversified productions of the town, of which immense quantities are exported, foreign merchants have either agents or one of their partners resident here, to conduct their commercial transactions, and to purchase, not only Manchester goods, but also the produce of all the adjoining manufacturing districts, which are accumulated here as in a central depôt. A Chamber of Commerce was established in 1820, by which the trading interests of its members, and those of Manchester generally, have been greatly promoted. The Branch Bank of England, nearly opposite the town-hall, is a handsome building from the designs of Mr. Cockerell, commenced in 1845. The Free-Trade Hall is one of the largest buildings in the town: the floor extends 136 feet in length, by 105 feet in breadth, and, including the platform and galleries, the hall covers an area of 1889 square yards; the roof is supported by two rows of slender pillars.

The Exchange and Commercial Buildings were erected from a design by Mr. Harrison, in 1806, at an expense of £20,000, advanced on shares of £50 each, by 400 proprietary members, who subsequently added £30 each for the purchase of the site. It is a spacious, handsome, and well-arranged edifice of Runcorn stone, in the Grecian style, and the north front, which faces the market-house, is semicircular, and ornamented with lofty fluted columns of the Doric order. The area of the exchange-room is 812 square yards. The newsroom, which occupies the basement story of the north part of the building, is elegantly provided with every accommodation, and is lighted by a semicircular dome and handsome windows of plate glass: at the distance of fifteen feet from the walls is a circular range of pillars of the Ionic order, supporting the ceiling; and over the central fire-place is a full-length portrait of Thomas Stanley, Esq., for many years member for the county, finely painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence. There are 2000 subscribers belonging to the establishment. Above the newsroom, and resting on the pillars that support the ceiling, is a circular range of building, two stories high, of which the lower contains the Exchange library, belonging to a proprietary of 400 members, and comprising more than 15,000 volumes. A handsome geometrical staircase leads from the hall to the upper part of the buildings, in which is an elegant dining-room, with a rich mantel-piece of Abyssinian marble at each end, and an orchestra on the north side; the room was opened in celebration of the anniversary of the birthday of George III., in 1809. There are also several anterooms, and a variety of offices connected with the general purposes of the institution.

The vast trade and commercial importance of the town have been in a great degree promoted by its proximity to Liverpool, whence its manufactures are exported to every quarter of the globe. It has a facility of water communication with that port by means of the Mersey and Irwell navigation, constructed in 1720, under an act of parliament amended in 1794, when the proprietors were incorporated, and by the celebrated Bridgewater canal; both of which communicate with the river Mersey, at Runcorn. The Manchester, Bolton, and Bury canal, constructed by act of parliament in 1791, crossing the Irwell at Clifton, and again at Little Lever, passes for 15 miles through a district abounding with coal and other mineral produce; and unites with the Leeds and Liverpool canal near Blackburn, by a branch formed in 1793. The Ashton-under-Line canal, constructed in 1792, is carried, by a lofty archway, in an oblique direction over Store-street, and, by another aqueduct of equal strength and considerable beauty of design, over the river Medlock; it has a branch to Stockport, and at Fairfield another branch communicates with Oldham. The Rochdale canal, constructed in 1794, forms a communication from the Duke of Bridgewater's canal at Manchester to the Calder navigation at Sowerbybridge, beyond which is a cut from Salter-Hebble to Halifax. In 1836 an act was passed for making a canal to connect the Rochdale canal and the river Irwell. By means of the Grand Trunk canal, a line of communication is established with London, Bristol, and other principal towns. A joint-stock company, for the conveyance of goods by water, called the New Quay Company, was originally established in 1822, with a capital of £30,000, and has a number of vessels plying between Manchester and Liverpool.

The facilities afforded by lines of Railways are far greater, and tend highly to augment the trade of the town, and to increase the celerity with which business is transacted. In 1826, an act was obtained for the construction of a railway between Manchester and Liverpool, adapted to the use of carriages drawn by locomotive engines impelled by steam, for the conveyance of merchandise and passengers. This undertaking was completed in 1830. The original station is in Water-street, and the depôt, which is nearly contiguous, is on the Liverpool road; the whole corresponding in appearance to the importance of the undertaking. The line is carried by a series of 22 arches, commencing at the warehouses in the Liverpool road, across the roofs of the houses in Water-street, and over the river Irwell by a handsome stone bridge of two arches, each 65 feet in span, and 30 feet high from the surface of the water to the central summit. An act was passed in 1836, for making a railway from Manchester to Leeds: the line, 50 miles in length, extends to Normanton, in Yorkshire, where it joins the Midland railway; the total expenditure up to July 1840, when the line was opened to the public, was £2,113,980. A branch to Ashton and Stalybridge, 6½ miles long, quits the line at a short distance from Manchester, and a railway is in progress under other management between Stalybridge and Leeds, by which a direct communication will be opened between Manchester and Leeds. The original station and the depôt of the old Manchester and Leeds (or Lancashire and Yorkshire) line, between Lee and St. George's streets, are elevated on a viaduct approached from the office below by a flight of steps, and contain carriagesheds, a polygonal engine-house, workshops, and other requisites. The Manchester Junction railway, opened in 1844, and two miles and a quarter long, consists of two parts. One commences near the original station of the Leeds railway, which is now exclusively a goods' station; and, after crossing the Irk three times, and being carried over several streets, terminates at Hunt's Bank, near the confluence of the Irk and the Irwell, where a station called the Victoria has been completed for the Leeds and the Liverpool railways. The other part, which belongs to the Liverpool line, is 1790 yards in length, commencing between the river Irwell and Ordsall-lane, in Salford; it is principally constructed upon arches, and terminates at Hunt's Bank. The Victoria station is of extraordinary size, the portion roofed over being 700 feet long and about 114 wide, and the iron roof containing nearly 80,000 square feet. The Manchester and Bolton railway was originally projected to be laid down in the bed of the Bolton and Bury canal, which was purchased for £100,000; but this line was abandoned. The present one commences at New Bailey street, Salford, where is a handsome station; it is thence conveyed by a viaduct of several arches, and passes under the Oldfield road at a distance of 320 yards from the line of the Liverpool railway, after which it proceeds in a direction nearly parallel with the canal, to Bolton, a distance of ten miles. The whole was opened in May, 1838, and the line has since been connected with the Liverpool and the Leeds lines. The East Lancashire railway quits the Bolton at Clifton, north-west of Manchester. The Manchester and Birmingham railway, which joins the Liverpool and Birmingham and the Chester and Crewe railways at Crewe, is 30 miles in length, and begins at Store-street, where there is a station comprising all the necessary arrangements. An act of parliament was passed in 1845, for the construction of a railway to connect the Manchester and Birmingham and the Manchester and Liverpool lines at Manchester, and also for making a railway to Altrincham, in Cheshire; the whole to be 9¼ miles in length, and to be called the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham railway. The Birmingham line is also connected with the Ashton branch of the Leeds line, by means of the Ardwick Junction, which commences at Ardwick, south-east of Manchester, on the Birmingham line, and after a course of a mile and three-quarters, terminates at the Ashton branch, north-east of Manchester. The Manchester, Ashton, and Sheffield railway, also begins at Ardwick; this very important line was opened in December 1845, and in 1846 an act was passed for its extension into Lincolnshire.

The market days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, of which the first is principally for the sale of merchandise, brought in great quantities in carts and wagons from the different factories. The markets are plentifully supplied with corn and provisions of all kinds. The corn-market is held in a building in Hanging-ditch, which was opened as a corn-exchange in 1837; the hay-market is in Bridgewater-street, and the cattle market in the new Smithfield, at Shude-hill. The markets for butchers' meat are held in Brown-street, Bridge-street, the London-road, and other parts of the town. The fish-market is in a suitable building erected on the site of what was formerly called the Old Shambles, at the expense of Sir Oswald Mosley, near Smithy Door, in 1828; the meal, flour, and cheese market is in a building on Shude-hill. The fruit, or apple, market is held in Fennel-street, and the upper end of Long Millgate; the vegetable market is held in St. Mary's gate, and in the upper end of Smithy Door, the middle and lower end of which form the market for butter, poultry, and eggs. An act was passed in 1846 for regulating the markets and providing new market-places. Salford, which was previously supplied from Manchester, has now a separate market, for which accommodation is provided under the town-hall, Chapel-street, Salford. The principal Fairs are on Easter Monday and Tuesday, for toys; and October 1st and 2nd, for horses, cattle, and pigs. At Salford, a fair commencing on Whit-Monday is much frequented by the Yorkshire clothiers, blanket-manufacturers, button-makers, and japanners. The Cloth-hall, a spacious and convenient building, is occupied by numerous tenants during this fair, which lasts for 21 days; and there is another fair, beginning on November 17th, and continuing for the same space of time: the first day of each is for the sale of cattle.

By the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, Manchester was constituted a parliamentary borough, with power to return two representatives: the borough comprises 6006 acres; the number of voters is 10,423, and the mayor is returning officer. Under the same act, Salford was invested with the franchise, with the privilege of returning one member: the limits of the borough comprise 5083 acres, and the number of electors is 2354. Manchester received a charter of incorporation on the 23rd of October, 1838, and is divided into 15 wards, which extend over the townships of Manchester, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Hulme, Ardwick, Beswick, and Cheetham; the whole comprising 4260 acres. The municipal body consists of a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors; the number of magistrates is 34. Her Majesty granted a separate court of quarter-sessions for the borough, and appointed a recorder; and a barrister, with a salary of £1000 per annum, sits daily as a magistrate. There is a large and effective police force under the control of a chief commissioner; and a boroughreeve and two principal constables are chosen from among the most respectable of the inhabitants, by a jury impanelled by the stewards of the manor, at the latter of the courts leet, which are held after Easter and Michaelmas. The powers of the county debt-court of Manchester, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistricts of Manchester and Chorlton; the powers of the Salford court extend over the districts of Salford and Worsley. The Manchester court of bankruptcy, established in 1842, and held daily, embraces part of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire. The quarter-sessions are held at Salford by adjournment, when the business for the whole of that hundred is transacted, under the superintendence of a chairman, who has a salary of £800 per annum. The Town-hall is a noble edifice, erected from a design by Mr. Francis Goodwin, at an expense of £40,000, on the model of the temple of Erectheus at Athens, with a beautiful tower and dome in the centre, resembling the tower of Andronicus, called the "Temple of the Winds." From the centre of the townhall is the principal entrance to a market-place, through a Doric colonnade; there are separate markets for meat, vegetables, fish, and poultry, chiefly covered over, and well ventilated: this building was erected under the superintendence of Messrs. Lane and Goodwin, at an expense of £10,000. The Salford Town-hall was erected in 1825–6, at a cost, including the market incorporated with it, of £9600. The New Bailey, or house of correction for the hundred of Salford, adjoining which is the governor's residence, was erected in 1790, upon the radiating principle, and comprises 24 wards, the same number of day-rooms and airing-yards, and 150 workshops.

The establishment of a bishopric in the town of Manchester was first proposed by the commissioners appointed in the reign of William IV. to inquire respecting ecclesiastical duties and revenues. The recommendations of these commissioners as to dioceses were embodied in the act 6 and 7 William IV., cap. 77, which provided for the foundation of the bishopric, upon the union of the dioceses of St. Asaph and Bangor, in the principality of Wales; and it being ultimately determined that the two Welsh sees should continue to be distinct, an act was passed on the 23rd July, 1847, for the immediate creation of the see of Manchester. On the 10th of August, Her Majesty in council sanctioned a scheme drawn up by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, which contained, among others, the following provisions. It is declared, that, on and after the 1st day of September, the collegiate church of Manchester is to be the cathedral of the new diocese; that the bishop, and the dean and chapter, are to exercise the same rights and privileges as those exercised by the bishop, and the dean and chapter, of Ripon; and that the income of the bishop is to be £4200 per annum. The diocese is placed in the province of York; and is declared to consist of the rural deaneries of Manchester, Blackburn, and Leyland, in the archdeaconry of Manchester, and of the deaneries of Amounderness and Tunstall, in the archdeaconry of Lancaster; thus embracing nearly the whole of Lancashire. The act for establishing the bishopric, contains a provision against the increase of the number of lords spiritual; it being provided that the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, shall always possess seats in parliament, but that the last appointed of the other bishops shall not be summoned. The exclusion, however, does not apply to the case of a prelate who, having a seat, is translated to another diocese; it has reference simply to a newly-made prelate. The first Bishop of Manchester is the Rev. James Prince Lee, late head master of the free grammar school of Birmingham, who was consecrated on the 23rd of January, 1848.

The old collegiate church, which, till after the Reformation, afforded accommodation for all the inhabitants of Manchester and Salford, was founded, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, in the 9th of Henry V., by Thomas, Lord De la Warre, who endowed it for a warden and eight fellows. The establishment, the revenue of which was £226. 12. 5., was dissolved in the reign of Edward VI., and re-established in that of Elizabeth under the designation of the Warden and Fellows of Christ's College. The dilapidation of the church, and the misappropriation of the collegiate funds, under the wardenship of Richard Murray, induced the inhabitants to petition the throne for a revival of the former charter, in 1635, and Charles I. conferred upon them a new charter of foundation, with rules for the government of the college, drawn up by Archbishop Land. Under this grant, the management was vested in a warden or dean, appointed by the Crown, who must at least be a bachelor in divinity, or of canon and civil laws; and in four fellows, who must be masters of arts, or bachelors of laws: they are a body corporate, denominated by act of parliament passed in 1840 the "Dean and Canons of Christ's College," and now forming the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral. The charter provides for the appointment of a sub-warden, treasurer, collector, registrar, a master of the choir, organist, four singing men (either clerks or laymen), and four boys skilled in music; and ordains that there shall be continually in the college, two chaplains, or vicars, of the degree of bachelors of arts, to administer the sacraments, visit the sick, and perform other religious offices. During the usurpation of Cromwell, the Independents established their own form of worship in the college, in 1649; the establishment was soon afterwards dissolved by an act of parliament for the sale of dean and chapter lands, and during the interregnum, the last warden officiated as parochial minister, for an annual stipend. At the Restoration, the institution was revived, subject to the statutes of Charles I., and the warden reinstated in his office. The revenue is £4025, and is divided into six parts, of which two are paid to the dean, and one to each of the canons.

The Cathedral Church is a spacious and elaborately ornamented structure, in the later English style, with a handsome square embattled tower, strengthened with buttresses, and crowned by pinnacles. The roof of the nave, which rises to a considerable height above the aisles, is concealed by a rich pierced parapet decorated with pinnacles; the windows are filled with elegant tracery, and the whole of the exterior, which is relieved by the projection of some beautiful chapels, has a truly magnificent appearance. The view of the interior is also strikingly impressive: the lofty nave is lighted by clerestory windows of fine proportions, and the choir is splendidly enriched with tabernacle-work of delicate execution; the roof is groined, and ornamented with grotesque figures of angels playing on musical instruments, with shields, and other devices, richly carved. Portions of the original stained glass are still preserved in several of the windows; and the altar is decorated with a piece of tapestry representing the offerings of the early Christians, and the punishment of Ananias and Sapphira. In different parts of the church, and in the chapels, are ancient and interesting monuments.

The parish comprises the ancient chapelries of Ardwick, Birch, Blackley, Cheetham, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Denton, Didsbury, Gorton, Newton, and Stretford; and the townships of Beswick, Bradford, Broughton, Burnage, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Crumpsall, Droylsden, Failsworth, Harpurhey, Heaton-Norris, Haughton, Hulme, Levenshulme, Manchester, Moss-Side, Moston, Openshaw, Reddish, Rushulme, Salford, and Withington. Trinity church, at Salford, was founded and endowed by Humphrey Booth, Esq., in 1635, but having fallen into decay, was rebuilt in 1752; it is a neat edifice in the Grecian style, and of the Doric order, with a steeple, and contains some handsome monuments and mural tablets. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Sir R. G. Booth, Bart. St. Ann's church, on the south side of St. Ann's square, founded in 1709, under the auspices of Lady Ann Bland, is a spacious structure in the Grecian style, and of a mixed order, with a tower formerly surmounted by a spire, which has been taken down; the interior is appropriately decorated. The living is a rectory not in charge; patron, the Bishop of Chester. St. Mary's, between Dean's-gate and the river Irwell, erected by the Warden and Fellows of the College, by act of parliament, in 1756, is a handsome edifice of the Doric order, with a tower and spire 186 feet in height. The interior, though dark, from the massive proportions of the pillars supporting the galleries, is very elegant: the altar is embellished with a well-executed painting of the Ascension, after Raphael, by Williams, and the window is enriched with stained glass, beneath which are the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £166; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Paul's, a neat edifice of brick, was erected in 1765; it was greatly enlarged, and re-consecrated in 1778, and a district has been lately assigned. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £293; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. This church has the largest Sunday schools perhaps in Christendom attached to it. St. John's, in Byrom-street, was built by Edward Byrom, Esq., under the authority of an act of parliament, in 1769, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower: the interior is remarkably neat, and finely ornamented; some of the windows are embellished with beautiful stained glass, and in the vestry-room are several fine paintings. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £290; patron, the Rev. W. Huntington, the incumbent. St. James', erected by the Rev. Cornelius Bayley, D.D., in 1787, and consecrated in 1788, is a spacious brick edifice, with a small stone spire: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter. St. Michael's, a large edifice of brick, was founded by the Rev. Humphrey Owen, in 1789: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter; net income, £72. St. Peter's, erected by subscription among the inhabitants, and consecrated in 1794, is a handsome edifice of Runcorn stone, in the Grecian style, with a stately tower and a noble portico of the Doric order; the interior is remarkable for the elegance and chasteness of its decoration, and the altarpiece is embellished with a fine painting of the Descent from the Cross, by Annibal Caracci. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patrons, Trustees. St. Stephen's, Salford, a neat building of brick ornamented with stone, with a handsome tower, was founded in 1794, by the Rev. N. M. Cheek, to whose memory a neat mural tablet has been erected; the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the present Incumbent, the Rev. J. E. Booth; net income, £245. St. George's, on the Middleton road, was built in 1790, by the Rev. Samuel Pidgeon, of Sale, and after being used by Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, was purchased and consecrated for a church in 1818: there are 1293 sittings, all free. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a chapelry district assigned; net income, £220; patron, the Bishop of Chester.

St. Matthew's district-parish church, in Castle-field, was erected in 1825, by grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of £11,917, and is an elegant structure in the later English style, with a tower and spire: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £271; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Philip's district-parish church, in Salford, a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with a tower and semicircular portico of the Ionic order, was also erected in 1825, by grant from the commissioners, at an expense of £16,804: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £410; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. Christ Church, in Acton-square, Salford, was built in 1830–1: the living is in the gift of Trustees. A district church in the later English style, with a tower, was erected in Travis-street, Ancoats, and dedicated to St. Andrew, in 1831, at an expense of £9988, under the act of the 58th of George III.: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £122; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. All Souls' district church, in the early Norman style, with two turrets, was erected in Everystreet, Ancoats, in 1839, by subscription, and by a grant of £500 from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies; it contains 1397 sittings, of which 697 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a district chapelry annexed; net income, £150; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Clement's, in Lever-street, erected in 1793, is open for the performance of divine service, according to the liturgy of the Church, but is not consecrated.

The foundation stone of the first of ten additional churches, to be erected and endowed in Manchester and Salford, was laid in Regent-road, Salford, in August, 1841; the church is dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of Trustees, with a net income of £112. St. Barnabas' church, Rodney-street, in the densely-populated district of Islington, another of the ten churches, was commenced in March 1842, and consecrated in November 1844; it contains 1100 sittings, one third free. An ecclesiastical parish has been assigned to it, under the 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of Trustees, with a net income of £150. St. Matthias', near Broughton bridge, Salford, was also built by the Ten-Churches Association: the living is in the gift of Trustees. A building formerly belonging to the Methodist New Connexion, and to which a new front has been added in the Norman style, was consecrated as a church in November 1844; it is now called Christ Church, and is situated in Blackburn-street. St. Simon's church, Salford, of which the first stone was laid March 24th, 1845, was erected partly by the Church Commissioners, and is in the pointed style, with a tower and spire: an ecclesiastical parish has been assigned to it, out of Trinity district, under the 6th and 7th Vict., cap. 37, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester, alternately, with a net income of £150. In Granby-row is a church dedicated to St. Simon and St. Jude, erected by the Manchester and Eccles Church-Building Society, an association distinct from the Ten-Churches Association: the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Bishop of Chester, with a net income of £150. The same society purchased a large meeting-house in Canal-street, Ancoats, which they converted into a church, dedicated to St. Jude. The foundation stone of St. Philip's church, Bradford-road, the fifth of the ten churches proposed to be erected, was laid in December 1846, by the Ven. Archdeacon Rushton; the building is in the early English style, will hold 1000 persons, and is externally cased with Yorkshire stone. Other churches in and near the town, including some erected by the two associations, are described under the heads of the adjacent townships.

The municipal borough of Manchester comprises altogether 97 places of worship, and 106 public schools; the towns of Manchester and Salford generally, and their immediate vicinities, have above 130 places of worship. Of this latter number, there are 31 churches, 21 Wesleyan meeting-houses, 17 Independent, 12 Methodist Association, 9 Baptist, 6 Roman Catholic, 5 Scottish Presbyterian, 5 Unitarian, 4 Methodist New Connexion, 4 Primitive Methodist, 4 Welsh Independent, 2 Welsh Calvinist, 2 Swedenborgian, 2 New Jerusalem, 2 Independent Methodist, a synagogue, a tabernacle, an Apostolic Church, and a place of worship each for the Society of Friends, Welsh Baptists, and Christian Brethren; besides three or four churches and meeting-houses now being built. Among the places of worship conspicuous for architectural beauty may be noticed the Roman Catholic chapel of St. Augustine, an elegant edifice in the later English style, built in 1820, from a design by Mr. Palmer, at an expense of £10,000; and the splendid chapel in High-street, Salford. The meeting-house for the Society of Friends is a spacious structure, erected under the direction of Mr. Lane, at a cost of £12,000, and conspicuous for its chaste simplicity and the beauty of its Ionic portico, the design of which was taken from that of the Temple of Ceres on the Ilyssus. The Wesleyan meeting-house in Oxfordroad has a handsome portico of the Doric order; and that in Irwell-street, Salford, has an Ionic portico and pediment. The Unitarian meeting-house, erected in 1839, is in the later English style.

The Free Grammar school, was founded in the 7th of Henry VIII., by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, who endowed it with houses and lands now producing a revenue exceeding £4000. Twelve exhibitions, of £40 per annum each, to either of the universities, belong to the school; which also, in turn with the schools of Hereford and Marlborough, has an interest in sixteen scholarships at Brasenose College, Oxford, and in the same number at St. John's College, Cambridge, founded by Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, in 1679, and varying in value from £18 to £26 each per annum. In the nomination of the Dean of the cathedral, and the Rectors of Prestwich and Bury, as trustees of Hulme's estates, are fifteen exhibitions varying from £60 to £120 each, to Brasenose College, for bachelors of arts, who may remain there four years after taking that degree; these were founded by the benevolent William Hulme, and are frequently conferred upon scholars from Manchester. The old school-house is a plain spacious building, erected in 1777, on the site of the original edifice, and having an owl, the crest of the founder, sculptured on a large stone medallion over the entrance. A new school-house has been erected, in consequence of the flourishing condition of the estates of the charity. The Blue-coat hospital, part of which is appropriated to the Chetham library, was founded in 1653, by means of a bequest from Humphrey Chetham, who left £7000 to trustees, to purchase estates for its endowment; and a sum of money to provide a house for the reception of 40 scholars, who were to be maintained and educated. The buildings of the college founded by Lord De la Warre, were, after its dissolution, purchased by the trustees from the Earl of Derby, to whom it had been presented by the crown, and appropriated to the use of the hospital. The premises occupy the site of the baronial mansion of the Gresleys, on the bank of the river Irk, near its confluence with the Irwell, and comprise an extensive range, exhibiting through all its subsequent repairs, strong features of its collegiate architecture. A large reading-room is ornamented with antique carvings, and portraits of the founder; of Dr. Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's; Dr. William Whitaker, successively master of Trinity, Queen's, and St. John's Colleges, Cambridge; Robert Bolton, a learned divine; and John Bradford, a native of Manchester, and a pupil in the grammar school, who was burned as a heretic in the reign of Mary. The Independent College situated at Withington, about three miles to the southwest of the city, is a spacious and handsome structure in the later English style, consisting of a central range with two boldly projecting wings, forming three sides of a quadrangle. In the centre of the principal range, which is two stories high, is a square embattled tower, surmounted by an octagonal lantern turret; and beneath a lofty oriel window, is the chief entrance. The New (Unitarian) College was founded at Manchester Feb. 22nd, 1786, removed to York Sept. 1803, and brought back to Manchester Sept. 1840; it has property valued at above £15,000, and is otherwise supported by subscriptions: the studies are conducted by a principal, four professors in the literary and scientific department, and three in that of theology and ecclesiastical history. The late John Owens, Esq., a merchant of the city, left the bulk of his fortune to trustees, for the foundation of a college, free from every religious test. A "Collegiate School" has been erected for the sons of tradesmen, in the Stretford-new-road, by the Church Educational Society of Manchester: the first stone was laid June 19th, 1845. The Ladies' Jubilee school, for maintaining, educating, and qualifying as household servants, female orphans, was established in 1809, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the accession of George III., and is a neat and commodious building on the borders of Strangeways Park: Miss Hall, one of the original and most zealous promoters of the institution, bequeathed at her death in 1828, £44,000, to be equally divided among this school, the infirmary, the lying-inhospital, and the fever ward. In 1723, Mrs. Anne Hinde bequeathed land now producing nearly £200 per annum, for education. Among the numerous other schools are the National central schools in Manchester and at Salford, founded in 1812; and a Lancasterian school commenced in 1809, and held in a building in Marshal-street, erected in 1813, at an expense of £5000. The Roby schools were completed in the beginning of 1845, and cost £3000.

The Infirmary was established in 1752, by Joseph Bancroft, Esq., in conjunction with Charles White, Esq., M.D.; and in 1755 a building for the purpose was erected by subscription; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and hot, cold, vapour, and medicated baths have been fitted up, the profits arising from which are appropriated to the support of the institution. A lunatic hospital and asylum was founded in 1765; a dispensary was established in 1792, and in 1830 the late king, on the solicitation of the chairman and committee, became the patron of the institution, which is now styled "The Royal Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital, and Asylum." An act was passed in 1844, authorising the committee to erect a new lunatic asylum. The Fever hospital, in Aytoun-street, is a plain and substantial structure of brick, erected by subscription, at an expense of £5000, in 1805. The Lying-in-hospital was instituted in 1790. The school for the Deaf and Dumb, formerly held in this building, was established in 1823: the necessity of increasing its means of usefulness having led to a public subscription and a bazaar, £3848 were paid to the treasurer as the commencement of a fund for a new building; and Mr. Henshaw, of Oldham, having bequeathed £20,000 for endowing a Blind Asylum, his trustees and the committee of the school determined to erect their buildings contiguous to each other. A beautiful pile was built near the Botanic garden: the Deaf and Dumb institution occupies one wing, and the Blind asylum the other: the centre being allotted to a chapel for the use of both. The first named institution cost about £11,000, and contains accommodation for 100 children; the Blind asylum affords room for 150 inmates. An institution for curing Diseases of the Eye was commenced in 1815, and though its annual income does not exceed £200, it affords relief to 1500 patients generally during the year; the Lock hospital, in Bond-street, was established in 1819, and the Female Penitentiary in 1822. Public Baths and Washhouses were opened in 1846: in the first half year ending March, 1847, the number of washings was 3233, and of pieces washed 105,928; the number of bathers was 7720. There are funds at the disposal of the boroughreeve amounting to more than £3000 per annum, arising from charitable bequests, for distribution in bread, clothes, money, and other necessaries, among the aged, infirm, and indigent poor.

Among the distinguished natives of Manchester, or persons who have been otherwise connected with it, may be enumerated, William Crabtree, an astronomical writer and the inventor of a micrometer, born at Broughton, within the parish, and killed at the battle of Marston-Moor in 1644; John Byrom, an ingenious poet, and the author of a system of short-hand, born at Kersal-Moor, near the town, in 1691; John Ferriar, M.D., author of Illustrations of Sterne, and other popular works; Thomas Barritt, a distinguished antiquary, whose large and valuable heraldic collections in manuscript are placed in the library of Chetham's hospital; Thomas Faulkner, an enterprising traveller, who published the earliest authentic account of Patagonia, and died in 1774; the Rev. John Whitaker, the Manchester historian; Thomas Percival, M.D., an eminent physician and popular writer; Charles White, M.D., F.R.S., a distinguished surgeon and anatomist; Joseph Farrington, R.A., a landscape painter of considerable celebrity; and Dr. Dalton, who died at Manchester, July 28th, 1844, aged 78 years. The city gives the titles of Duke and Earl to the family of Montagu.

Transcribed from A Topographical Dictionary of England, by Samuel Lewis, 7th edition, published in 1848.

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