Lidney, or Lydney (St. Mary)

LIDNEY, or Lydney (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Chepstow, hundred of Bledisloe, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Gloucester, and 123 (W. by N.) from London; containing, with the chapelry of Aylburton, 1885 inhabitants, of whom 1146 are in the town. This place, which is situated on the road from Gloucester to Swansea, is by some writers supposed to have been the Roman station Abona; and though it may not be satisfactorily identified with that particular station, there are positive evidences of its occupation by the Romans. In Lydney Park are the remains of a Roman villa, and of two camps; near the western border of the larger camp is a Roman bath, still tolerably perfect; and fragments of tessellated pavement, urns, statues, coins of Adrian and Antoninus, and a silver coin of Galba, have been found. An ancient mansion called Whitecross, erected by Sir William Winter, viceadmiral of England in the reign of Elizabeth, was fortified and garrisoned in the civil war of the 17th century by Sir John Winter, a distinguished royalist, who defended it against repeated attacks by detachments from Gloucester, but at last set fire to and deserted it, having first despoiled the forest. The trade of the town is principally in the export of coal, and is facilitated by the river Severn, which forms the eastern boundary of the parish; the Severn and Wye railroad terminates here, and a canal with a basin connects it by means of locks with the river. The line of the South Wales railway passes through the parish. The manufacture of tin plates is carried on to a great extent, and in connexion with it are iron-works. Limestone is quarried. The market is on Wednesday; and fairs are held on May 4th and November 8th. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of St. Briavell's and Hewelsfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £24. 6. 8.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. The great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £420, and the vicarial for £680; the glebe comprises 2 acres. The church is a spacious plain structure, with a beautiful spire. At Aylburton is a chapel of ease; and the Baptists have a place of worship. There are some chalybeate springs.

Transcribed from A Topographical Dictionary of England, by Samuel Lewis, 7th edition, published in 1848.

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