Leeds (St. Peter)

LEEDS (St. Peter), a parish, and liberty, in the W. riding of York, comprising the market-town and borough of Leeds, which has a separate jurisdiction, but is locally in the wapentake of Skyrack; and containing 152,054 inhabitants, of whom 88,741 are in the town, 24 miles (S. W. by W.) from York, and 194 (N. N. W.) from London. This place is supposed to have been the site of a Roman station connected with that of Cambodunum, an opinion in some degree corroborated, by the discovery of traces of a Roman road, and other ancient remains in the vicinity. After the destruction of Cambodunum by Cadwallo, a British prince, and Penda, King of Mercia, the place was made a royal vill, and obtained the Saxon appellation of Loidis, though on what account does not clearly appear. During the heptarchy a memorable battle occurred here, between Oswy, King of Northumbria, and Penda, the pagan King of Mercia, who in 655 had invaded Oswy's territories; Penda, with many of his vassals, was slain, and numbers of his forces, in their attempt to escape from the field of carnage, perished in the waters of the river Aire, which had at the time overflowed its banks. At the Conquest, the manor of Leeds was given to Ilbert de Lacy, who erected a baronial castle here, which was besieged by Stephen, King of England, on his route to Scotland, and in which Richard II., after his deposition, was for some time confined, previously to his removal to the Castle of Pontefract, where he was inhumanly murdered. During the war in the reign of Charles I., numerous skirmishes between the contending parties took place in the immediate neighbourhood, and that monarch resided for a short time at Red Hall, a brick mansion so called from the colour of its material, situated in the part of the borough now called Guildford-street. In 1643, the town was taken by the parliamentary forces under General Fairfax, who had marched from Bradford to besiege it, and to whom, after an assault of two hours, it surrendered. After the battle of Marston-Moor, in 1643, the Scottish troops halted here; on which occasion Charles, who was then a captive at Red Hall, refused the opportunity offered to him by a female servant of the house to effect his escape in disguise: her fidelity, however, was amply acknowledged and rewarded after the Restoration, on the production of a token given to her for that purpose by the unfortunate monarch. In the reign of William III., Thomas, Marquess of Carmarthen, was created Duke of Leeds, and the title is still inherited by his descendants.

This flourishing Town, which is more celebrated as the chief seat of the woollen manufacture, than for its antiquity or historical importance, is pleasantly situated on the acclivities and summit of a gentle eminence rising from the north bank of the river Aire, over which are six bridges. Leeds bridge, consisting of five arches, forms the principal avenue to the south entrance of the town, but is inadequate to its purpose, the nature of the ground and the surrounding property presenting great obstacles to improvement. Wellington bridge, a handsome structure of one noble arch, 100 feet in span, was erected in 1818, at an expense of £7000, from a design by Rennie, and affords communication with the townships of Wortley and Armley. Victoria bridge, connecting Sandfordstreet with the Holbeck road, was completed in 1838, at a cost of £8000, and is a substantial structure of one arch, 80 feet in span, and 45 feet in breadth between the battlements; during its erection it withstood the shock of an overwhelming flood without injury. Two of the other bridges are Suspension bridges; one constructed in 1829, at an expense of £3950, by Messrs. Hartop and Co., of the Milton iron-works, and forming a direct communication between Hunslet and the road to York on the east; and the other communicating with Holbeck and the western part of the town. A sixth bridge, of stone, and very commodious, called Crown-Point bridge, has been completed under an act of parliament, about 500 yards below Leeds bridge, opening a communication between Hunslet-lane (the London entrance of the town) and the eastern precincts; it cost, with approaches, at least £20,000.

The streets in the more ancient parts are inconveniently narrow, but in other parts spacious and well built; Briggate, the principal street, is more than 600 yards in length, gradually ascending in a direct line from the old bridge to St. John's street, and forming one of the widest and handsomest thoroughfares in the north of England. From St. John's church, the town extends towards the west by a gentle slope, on which are many good streets, squares, and public buildings; and eastward extends towards the Sheepscar beck, which receives the Gipton stream, flows southward through a populous district, and falls into the river Aire about a quarter of a mile below the parochial church. Considerable improvements were made under acts of parliament obtained in 1809 and 1815. The town is amply supplied with water, formerly conveyed from Addle into three capacious reservoirs, from which it was distributed to the houses of the inhabitants; but now brought from Eccup, near Harewood, about six miles north of the town, by a company incorporated by parliament, in 1840, and by whom works at Headingley and on Woodhouse Moor were constructed in 1841. In 1842 an act was obtained, very ample in its provisions, relating to lighting, paving, improvement, and police; its administration is in the hands of the town-council, and a board of works has been constituted. In the same year an act was passed for providing additional parochial burialground, which was much wanted. The houses are in general neatly built of brick, and roofed with grey slate; and in various parts are elegant mansions, and handsome ranges in the modern style, of which Park-place has some ground in front, tastefully laid out in parterres and shrubberies. Park-square, Hanover-square, and Woodhouse-square are similarly inclosed and planted. The town is rapidly increasing in the west and northwest, particularly in the district of Little Woodhouse, which affords excellent sites for building.

The Leeds Subscription Library, in Commercial-street, was instituted in 1768, at the recommendation of Dr. Priestley, and has now one of the most extensive collections, literary and scientific, in the north. The New Subscription Library in Park-row, the New Library, and the Young Man's Library, have all valuable collections; and there are also a Parochial Library, a Church of England Library containing chiefly books on divinity, and libraries connected with some of the dissenting places of worship. The Literary and Philosophical Society was established in 1820; and a building of stone, erected by Mr. Chantrell, in the Grecian style, at a cost of £6500, and containing a library, lecture-room, and museum, is appropriated to the use of the members. The Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society, which possesses no fewer than 800 members, is composed of two societies formerly distinct, namely, the Mechanics' Institute founded in the year 1825, and the Literary Institution established in 1834, which were combined in one under the above title in 1842. It has a library of more than 5000 volumes, arranged in a handsome saloon, used for lectures and as a reading-room for the members, and which contains also a valuable philosophical apparatus: there are likewise several class-rooms. The building was purchased a few years since, principally with the proceeds of a successful exhibition. Part of it is occupied by a school of design, established in 1845 by the government. The Theatre, a plain edifice of brick, erected in 1771, is opened occasionally by the York company. The Assembly Rooms over the White-Cloth Hall were built in 1775, and the Music Hall in Albionstreet, in 1792; they are both neat buildings of brick, and the latter is often appropriated to various other uses. The Public Baths in Wellington-street, a handsome range in the Grecian style, erected in 1820, under the superintendence of Mr. Chantrell, at an expense of £6000, are conveniently arranged, and comprise hot, cold, shower, and vapour baths, with others artificially prepared, and possessing the properties and temperature of the Matlock and Buxton waters. The Commercial Buildings, a spacious structure of stone, also in the Grecian style, were erected in 1826, at an expense of £34,000, under the superintendence of Mr. Clark, architect, and are used as an exchange for the merchants and manufacturers of the town; the buildings contain numerous apartments, among which are a newsroom, well supplied with journals and periodicals, and an elegant room for public meetings and exhibitions. A Museum of natural curiosities, established in 1827 by Mr. Calvert, contains more than 15,000 specimens. A School of Medicine for the benefit of practitioners and their pupils, has been instituted, of which the sessions commence in October, and close in April. There is also a Floral and Horticultural Society.

The suburbs comprise several villages and hamlets connected with the town by long ranges of factories in some parts, and in others by series of detached villas of pleasing and picturesque appearance. The environs abound with handsome mansions, the seats of merchants and families of distinction; and the country is rich in interesting features. On the northern acclivity of Airedale, between Headingley and Burley, are the Botanic Gardens, comprising an area of 20 acres, embellished with appropriate buildings, interspersed with several sheets of water, and richly planted with every variety of foreign and indigenous specimens, tending to illustrate science. Nearly adjoining Woodhouse Moor, is the General Cemetery, for the interment of persons of all religious denominations, which was opened in 1835, and occupies an area of 10 acres of land, purchased for £4000, by a company of £50 shareholders, who expended more than £11,000 in the requisite buildings and arrangements. It is situated on a gentle acclivity, commanding a fine view of the town and of the vale of the Aire. The grounds are beautifully laid out, and adapted for 14,000 graves, in addition to the vaults and catacombs; in the centre is a chaste and elegant chapel in the Grecian style, and on one side of the principal entrance through a portal of good design, are the residences of the chaplain and registrar, and on the other the house for the sexton and keeper. At Burmantofts and Woodhouse-Hill are other cemeteries, both formed in 1845, by the town-council, and each comprising about ten acres; they are tastefully laid out, and the charges for interments are moderate. The Cavalry Barracks, at the north approach to the town, were erected in 1820, at an expense of £28,000, and occupy an area of 11 acres; the buildings are of brick, and form a very complete establishment, including grounds for exercise and parade, with stabling for several troops of horse.

To the great extent and variety of the manufactures carried on in the town and neighbourhood, and particularly to the manufacture of woollen-cloth, which has been brought to a high state of perfection, may be attributed the present prosperity of the West riding of the county. The pre-eminence obtained by the town over its once successful competitors, Halifax and Bradford, is not of more ancient date than the middle of the seventeenth century, since which period the rapidity of its progress, more especially during the last thirty years, has been altogether unprecedented. Formerly, only the coarser kinds of woollen-cloth, distinguished from those of the west of England by the appellation of Yorkshire cloths, were manufactured here; but since the introduction of machinery, and particularly since the great improvements made by Mr. William Hirst, a native of this place, cloths have been produced equalling, and in some instances surpassing, those of the western counties, in fineness of texture, and brilliancy and permanence of colour; and superfine black and blue cloths, made from wool carefully selected, have been sold for £5 per yard. In some of the many factories the whole process, from the first breaking of the wool to the finishing of the cloth for the consumer, is performed by machinery propelled by steam. The chief branches of the manufacture are, superfine broad and coarse narrow cloths, ladies' pelisse cloth and shawls, and carpets, with Scotch camlets. The worsted manufacture is also carried on here and in the vicinity to a considerable extent; but the chief quantities of stuffs are purchased in the rough state at Bradford and Halifax by the Leeds merchants, to be dyed and finished here, and afterwards sent to all parts of the kingdom. In the town are likewise several spacious factories for spinning flax, and the making of canvas, sacking, linen, thread, and other articles; with numerous fulling-mills, dyehouses, and other establishments connected with the woollen, worsted, and linen manufactures. In the immediate vicinity are large manufactories for crown and flint glass, and glass bottles, and an extensive pottery, the reputation of which procures for its wares a demand in every part of the kingdom; fire-bricks and tobaccopipes, also, are made in great quantities, for which clay of excellent quality is obtained in the parish. There are several large iron-foundries, and works for the manufacture of steam-engines, and machinery of all kinds; and on the banks of the Aire are numerous mills for grinding corn, crushing rapeseed and dye-woods, with mills for the manufacture of tobacco and snuffs, in which a good trade is carried on. The business of the cloth manufacture is chiefly transacted in the Cloth Halls. That for the sale of coloured or mixed cloths, was built in 1758, and is a spacious, neat, quadrangular structure, 127½ yards long and 66 yards wide; the area is divided into six compartments, called streets, each containing two rows of stands for the exposure of the goods: in 1810 an additional story was built on the north side, principally for the sale of ladies' cloth in an undyed state. The White Cloth Hall, of nearly the same dimensions as the former, was built in 1775. The halls are open for business every Tuesday and Saturday morning, the Mixed Hall at half-past eight in the summer, at nine in the spring and antumn, and at half-past nine in the winter; and the White Hall immediately after the former is closed. The time allotted does not exceed one hour and a quarter, in which short interval business to a large amount is frequently transacted; but the progress of the factory system has of late years materially diminished the business done in the cloth halls.

The River Aire, which passes through the southern part of the town, is navigable to the Humber. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal joins the Aire, and is part of a direct line of navigation between Hull and Liverpool. This canal, for which the first act was obtained in 1770, was not completed to Liverpool till 1816: the whole length is 128 miles, the average breadth 72 feet, and the depth 5 feet; the number of locks from Leeds to the summit is 44, and the rise 411 feet 4½ inches, and the number of locks from the summit to Liverpool 47, and the fall 433 feet 3 inches. It communicates with the Ribble by the Douglas navigation, and a branch from Wigan to Leigh connects it with the Bridgewater canal. The Aire and Calder Navigation Company have extensive ranges of warehouses and a commodious wharf, from which fly-boats pass daily to Goole. The Leeds and Derby Railway, belonging to the Midland Company, completes the communication between the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire, and the Midland ccunties and London; its station is in Hunslet-lane, and is an appropriate range of building, comprising offices also for the companies of the Manchester and Leeds, and the York and North-Midland, railways, with carriage-sheds 300 yards in length, &c. In the front is a handsome arcade having two gateways from Hunslet-lane, with a central gateway for waggons proceeding to the docks, at the northern extremity, and on the opposite side two other gateways for passengers arriving by the trains. The erection of the buildings cost £14,000, and contiguous to them is a depôt for goods, built at an expense of £7000; the whole occupying an area of 14 acres. The Leeds and Selby Railway, which forms a portion of the great transverse line from Liverpool to Hull, has a station in Marsh-lane, which includes an extensive depôt; near its commencement at Leeds, it passes along a tunnel 700 yards long, 22 feet wide, and 17 feet high, cut through strata of shale and coal measures, with some portions of rock. The line was opened to the public in 1840, and was subsequently sold to the York and North-Midland Company; the principal station for passengers being removed to Hunslet-lane, though the original station is still partially used for heavy goods and coal. The York and North Midland Railway, opened in June 1840, quits the Derby line at Methley, near Normanton, and, proceeding towards York, intersects the Selby line at right angles near Sherburn: the Manchester Railway, completed in October, 1840, quits the Derby line also near Normanton, not very far from the Methley junction. The Leeds and Bradford Railway, opened June 1846, commences near the river Aire, at Wellington-street, on the west side of Leeds, and, crossing over a weir on the river at a considerable altitude, follows the course of the Aire: a branch quits the line on the south side, to join the Hunslet station, on the south of Leeds. An act was passed in 1845 for the construction of a railway from Leeds to Dewsbury and Kirk-Heaton, there to join the Huddersfield and Manchester railway: a direct communication between Leeds and Manchester will thus be obtained. Another act was passed in 1845, for a railway to Harrogate, Ripon, and Thirsk; and in 1846, an act for a direct railway between Leeds and York.

The market days are Tuesday and Saturday, the former principally for corn, and the latter for provisions. The corn-market is held in the Corn Exchange, a handsome building in the Grecian style, completed in 1828, at an expense of £12,500, raised in shares of £50 each; the front in Briggate is ornamented with Ionic columns supporting an entablature and a cornice, with a pediment, surmounted by an elegant campanile turret. In a niche between the columns is a marble statue of Queen Anne, originally presented to the corporation by Alderman Milner, and placed in front of the ancient moot hall, which once stood conveniently in the centre of Briggate. Part of the exchange is appropriated as an hotel, in the rear of which is a court surrounded by a piazza, where the corn is sold by sample. The Central Market is a spacious edifice at the corner of Duncan-street, commenced by a proprietary, and completed in 1827 at an expense of £35,000, from a design by Mr. Goodwin, of London. The principal front is divided into three compartments by fluted columns of the Ionic order and antæ of corresponding character, supporting an entablature on which are inscribed the words "Central Market," and surmounted by a pediment. The interior is divided into three ranges of stalls, and a gallery extends round three sides of the area, of which the fourth side is occupied by a bazaar. The South Market, extending from Hunslet-lane to Meadow-lane, was erected in 1824, after a design by Mr. Chantrell, at an expense of £14,500; the interior comprises a spacious area laid out in streets, with regular shops for the sale of leather, and a semicircular range of building for general wares, in the centre of which is a circular market-house, crowned with a dome resting on pillars of the Doric order. The Wholesale Carcase Market, called "Leadenhall," in Vicar-lane, is a well-arranged area, with slaughter-houses under ground, sufficiently capacious for the slaughter of 150 beasts, exclusively of calves and sheep; it is amply supplied with water, and kept perfectly clean. The New Shambles and Fish Market were erected in 1826, on ground purchased at a cost of £6000, and form two streets, Cheapside and Fleet-street; above the central row of shops is a bazaar 80 yards in length, formerly let in shops to dealers in various kinds of fancy articles. The Free Market for the sale of vegetables, fruit, hay, cattle, and pigs, occupies an area of nearly 10,000 square yards, purchased in 1823 by the commissioners, under a special act of parliament; though originally intended to be free, as its name implies, the parties frequenting it pay moderate tolls, producing from £1200 to £1400 a year, now, by the new improvement bill, under the control of the town-council. Fairs are held on July 10th and 11th for horses, and on November 8th and 9th for cattle; and eight fairs are held annually for leather in the South market.

The town received its first charter of incorporation in the second year of the reign of Charles I.: this having been forfeited, a new charter was granted by Charles II., in the 13th of his reign, under which the inhabitants were governed by a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 24 assistants, a recorder, deputy recorder, town-clerk, coroner, clerk of the market, and other officers. Since the passing of the general Municipal act, the borough has been divided into 12 wards, and the corporation has consisted of a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors; the total number of magistrates is 30, but a few have not qualified. The recorder holds quarterly courts of session for the borough; and the Michaelmas sessions for the West riding take place here. Petty-sessions for the borough are held every Tuesday and Friday, and for the several parishes in the wapentake of Skyrack by the magistrates of the riding weekly. The borough justices sit daily for the examination of offenders, and the regulation of police affairs, two attending in rotation. The powers of the county debtcourt of Leeds, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Leeds and Hunslet: the court of bankruptcy, established in 1842, embraces the county of York, and part of the counties of Nottingham and Lincoln. The police force consists of a chief constable and about 100 men. An act was obtained in 1839, exempting the inhabitants of the manor from the obligation of grinding their corn and malt at the king's mills, upon paying an adequate compensation to the lessee; for which purpose £13,000, and a sum for attendant expenses, were raised by rates on the owners and occupiers. The Court-house is an elegant building in the Grecian style, consisting of a centre and two wings, erected in 1813, from a design by Mr. Taylor: the central front is decorated with a lofty portico of four Corinthian pillars, supporting an entablature and cornice surmounted by a pediment, enriched with appropriate designs sculptured in bas-relief. The Prison, a massive edifice of stone, about a mile west of the town, was completed in July 1847, at a cost of about £40,000, and is constructed according to the most improved system of discipline: when viewed at a distance, it has a noble castellated appearance. The town, during the usurpation of Cromwell, sent a member to the house of commons, but the privilege was afterwards discontinued till the 2nd of William IV., when the inhabitants were empowered to return two representatives to the imperial parliament; the right of election being vested in the £10 householders.

The parish comprises by computation 21,760 acres; the soil is generally fertile, and much of the land is in a very high state of cultivation. The substratum is rich in mineral produce; and the abundance of excellent coal found in various parts, has contributed greatly to the establishment of the extensive works and factories to which the place is indebted for its distinguished prosperity. Within the limits of the parish are the chapelries of Armley, Beeston, Bramley, Farnley, Chapel-Allerton, Headingley with Burley, Holbeck, Wortley, and Hunslet; also the township of Potter-Newton, and part of the townships of Seacroft and Temple-Newsom.

The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £38. 0. 2½.; net income, £1257, with a good glebehouse; patrons, twenty-five Trustees; appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The Parochial church, dedicated to St. Peter, supposed to have been built on the site of a more ancient structure, in the reign of Edward III., and enlarged in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII., was entirely rebuilt by subscription in 1838-40, at an expense of £28,000, after a design by Mr. Chantrell. It is a spacious and handsome cruciform edifice, in the transitional style from the decorated into the later English, with a lofty square embattled tower rising from the north transept. The interior is finely arranged, and contains some ancient monuments preserved from the old church, and several of modern date, among which is one by Flaxman, in statuary marble, to the memory of Captains S. Walker and R. Beckett, who fell in the battle of Talavera. There is also a fine full-length monumental statue by Parke, raised by subscription, of Michael Thomas Sadler, Esq., M.P., an eminent linen merchant of this town, who introduced into parliament a bill for limiting the labour of children in factories to ten hours per day, and to whose exertions and example is owing the turn which legislation has taken in behalf of the industrious classes.

At the close of the year 1843, a plan was proposed by the Rev. Dr. Hook, vicar of Leeds, for the division of the parish and vicarage into numerous distinct parishes and vicarages, under the authority of an act of parliament to be obtained by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; and at a meeting of the commissioners, held on the 9th of January, 1844, they assented to the principle of the intended arrangements. The plan, as settled by the act (7 & 8 Vict., c. 108), includes within its scope, the formation of new parishes for ecclesiastical purposes, the incumbent of each to be a vicar, and to receive all tithes, moduses, and similar payments, now received by the vicar of Leeds. Churchwardens, with the usual full powers, will be chosen in each new parish; marriages and all other offices will be performed in every church, as in ancient parish churches; parsonage-houses and schools will be provided; and the nave or body of each church will become free and unappropriated. Nearly all the patronage, also, now vested in the vicar, will be placed in the hands of the bishop of the diocese.

The church dedicated to St. John the Evangelist was built in 1634, at the expense of John Harrison, Esq., who endowed it with a house and eighty-four acres of land, now producing £322. 10. per annum, of which he appropriated one-ninth part for the repair of the church, and the residue for the minister. It is in the later English style, with an embattled tower crowned by crocketed pinnacles; the walls, originally of perishable stone, have been rebuilt at an expense of £1500, with stone of more durable quality. The founder was buried in the church, under a monument of black marble. The living was made a vicarage under the new act in 1845, and is in the joint patronage of the Vicar of Leeds, the Mayor, and the three senior Aldermen; net income in 1843, £375. The church dedicated to the Holy Trinity was erected in 1721, at a cost of £4563, of which £1000 were given by Lady Elizabeth Hastings, and the remainder raised by subscription; it was endowed with £80 per annum, by the Rev. Henry Robinson, nephew of the founder of St. John's. The building is in the Grecian style, with a tower of two stages, of which one is of the Corinthian and the other of the Ionic order; there is a monument to Mr. Robinson, recording his benefactions. The living is at present a perpetual curacy; net income, £300; patrons, the Vicar, the Recorder of the borough, and the Minister of St. John's. The church dedicated to St. Paul was erected in 1793, chiefly through the exertions of the Rev. Miles Atkinson, vicar of Kippax, who, with the assistance of numerous friends, raised the structure at an expense of £10,000, on a site given by Dr. Wilson, Bishop of Bristol, who laid the first stone; it is a neat edifice of stone, with a handsome Ionic portico supporting an entablature and pediment. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £133; patron, the Vicar of Leeds. The church dedicated to St. James was formerly a place of worship belonging to the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, but was purchased by two clergymen of the Established Church, and afterwards by a recent incumbent, and was consecrated by Archbishop Markham; it is a plain octagonal building. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Leeds.

The church on Quarry Hill, dedicated to St. Mary, was erected in 1824, at an expense of £10,456, by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 2000 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £45; patron, the Vicar of Leeds. Christ-Church, in Meadow-lane, was erected in the same year as St. Mary's, at an expense of £10,951, from the same fund; it is an elegant structure in the decorated English style, with a lofty embattled tower, strengthened by buttresses, and crowned with crocketed pinnacles, and contains about 2000 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £65; patron, the Vicar of Leeds. The church dedicated to St. Mark, in the populous suburb of Woodhouse, was erected in 1825, at an expense of £9000, parliamentary grant, and is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower: a district has been assigned, and the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £140; patrons, the Trustees of Leeds vicarage. The church at Mount Pleasant, dedicated to St. George, was erected for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the north-western suburbs, in 1837, at an expense, including its endowment, of more than £12,000; it is a commodious structure in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a lofty spire. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of five Trustees. The church dedicated to St. Luke, in Northstreet, was erected in 1841, at a cost of £1300, raised by subscription; it is a neat structure in the early English style, and contains 450 sittings: underneath is a schoolroom. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Leeds. A benevolent individual having resolved to build a church at Leeds through the instrumentality of the Rev. Dr. Pusey, St. Saviour's church was completed at a cost of £20,000 in 1845, and the living made an independent vicarage under the act 7 & 8 Vict. in 1846; patrons, Trustees. St. Andrew's church, the first stone of which was laid Nov. 1843, was completed at an expense of £4090, and consecrated March 26th, 1845: the living is a district perpetual curacy in the gift of John Gott, Esq., with a net income of £150. Other churches are situated at Armley, Beeston, Bramley, Chapel-Allerton, Farnley, Hunslet, Headingley, Holbeck, Kirkstall, and Wortley, all of which are described in the articles on those townships; and under the act 6 & 7 Vict., c. 37, "to make better provision for populous parishes," two districts have been endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, named St. Philip's, and St. Matthew's Little London: both of the livings are in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop, alternately. A church for the former district or ecclesiastical parish was completed in 1847, at a cost of nearly £5000, half of which was defrayed by John Gott, Esq. There are also places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, members of the Scottish Church, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics; many of the buildings are spacious and elegant, and several of them possess organs of unusual tone and power.

The Free Grammar School was founded in 1552, by Sir William Sheafield, who endowed it with land on the condition that the inhabitants should erect a schoolhouse, which was fulfilled by John Harrison, in 1624, at his own expense; the school-house was enlarged in 1692, by Godfrey Lawson, mayor, and a dwelling was erected for the master by the trustees in 1780, since which other additions have been made. The endowment, augmented by subsequent benefactions, now produces above £2000 per annum; and the school is conducted by a head master and second master, with assistants, and is open to all boys of the parish for instruction in the classics and mathematics, and writing. It has the privilege of sending a candidate for one of Lady Elizabeth Hastings' exhibitions to Queen's College, Oxford, and is entitled, with the schools of Haversham and Halifax, to one of the four scholarships of £80 per annum founded by the Rev. T. Milner, in Magdalen College, Cambridge, tenable till the holder takes the degree of M.A.; and also, in failure of a candidate from Normanton school, to one of the two scholarships founded by Mrs. Frieston, in Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

The General Infirmary, founded in 1771, is a neat edifice, forming three sides of a quadrangle, and contains accommodation for more than 150 patients: it is furnished with cold, warm, and medicated baths; the wards are well ventilated, and a piece of contiguous ground, comprising 4000 square yards, purchased at a cost of £1500, and presented to the institution in 1817, by Richard F. Wilson, Esq., has been appropriated as a garden. The charity is supported by subscription and collections, averaging £2500 per annum, and by the dividends on £3000 three per cent. consols. bought with the amount of various bequests; the usual number of in-patients is about 1600, and of out-patients 3000, annually. The House of Recovery, for the reception of patients in contagious fever, is maintained by voluntary subscriptions and donations; the present building, at Burmantofts, was completed in 1846, at a cost of £6000, exclusively of the purchase of the ground. The Dispensary in North-street was established in 1824, and is supported by subscriptions and benefactions, averaging about £600 per annum. The General Eye and Ear Infirmary, in Kirkgate, was commenced in 1821. The Stranger's Friend Society, established in 1790, dispenses about £350 annually in visiting and relieving the sick poor; and the Church of England District-Visiting Society, established in 1834, distributes upwards of £500 among the poor, without distinction of country or creed. The Tradesmen's Benevolent Institution was established in 1843, and has a fund of £4000, and an annual income from subscriptions of £1000. Eight houses were bequeathed in 1643, by Josias Jenkinson, for the reception of aged persons, but without any funds for keeping them in repair: they have been rebuilt, partly by a bequest of £500 by John Blayds, Esq.; and the rent of a farm left to the poor by the founder, has been appropriated to their endowment. Harrison's Hospital, comprising originally 30 almshouses, to which 12 have since been added, were founded in 1653, by John Harrison, who endowed them with lands producing £80 per annum: the endowment has been augmented by benefactions from Mrs. Catherine Parker, Mr. Joseph Midgley, Arthur Iken, Esq., and others; and the buildings, which occupy a large quadrangular area, afford an asylum to 64 aged women. Houses for ten aged widows were founded in 1729, by Mrs. Mary Potter, who endowed them with £2000, to which £400 were added by Mrs. Barbara Chantrell; these sums, with subsequent benefactions, produce an income from which each of the inmates receives £12. 12. per annum. There are also considerable bequests for the poor generally, a large savings' bank, and innumerable schools. The township of Leeds was placed under 18 guardians, by the Poor-Law Commission, in 1844: the workhouse is at the top of Ladylane; and at Burmantofts is a large industrial school, erected by the guardians, at an expense of £12,000.

Among the distinguished Natives or Residents of the town and neighbourhood have been, Hartley, author of the Observations on Man; Smeaton, the celebrated engineer, and builder of the Eddystone lighthouse; Thoresby, the antiquary; Dr. Priestley; Joseph and Isaac Milner, theologians; Dr. James Scott, author of three Seatonian prize poems, and a writer in the Public Advertiser under the signature of Anti-Sejanus; and Benjamin Wilson, F.R.S., an eminent painter. The place gives the title of Duke to the family of Osborne.

Transcribed from A Topographical Dictionary of England, by Samuel Lewis, 7th edition, published in 1848.

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