Deane (St. Mary)
DEANE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bolton-le-Moors, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 1 mile (S. W. by W.) from Bolton; containing 16,157 inhabitants. It comprises the townships of Heaton, Middle and Over Hulton, and Rumworth, which constitute the district attached to the parish church; and Halliwell, Horwich, Little Hulton, and West Houghton, which are separate chapelries. Till very lately, it included also Farnworth and Kearsley, which now form a separate vicarage. This is an important manufacturing district, containing many cottonestablishments, and some of the most extensive bleachworks in the kingdom; and a large number of the inhabitants are engaged in hand-loom weaving, and in coal-mines, which abound in the parish. The river Croal, commonly called the Middlebrook, and the Bolton and Kenyon and the Bolton and Lancaster railway, pass through. There are two fine specimens of Elizabethan architecture: one of them is Smithills Hall, in the township of Halliwell; the other, Peel Hall. The principal landowners are, the Earl of Ellesmere, Henry Tempest, Esq., and William Hulton, Esq., whose residence, Hulton Park, is beautifully situated in the township of Over Hulton.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £213, with a house picturesquely seated: the impropriation belongs to Mr. Tempest. The church is a fine building in the perpendicular style, standing in a spacious churchyard, in which is a very large yew-tree; it has been enlarged and repaired at considerable expense within the last few years, and a considerable portion of the interior is laid out in old oak open benches. The east window, which is of great size, has been embellished with figures of Our Lord, St. John the Baptist, and the Twelve Apostles, in richly stained glass, executed by Mr. William Warrington, of London; and this imitation of ancient stained glass is thought to be one of the best yet produced in the country. There is still remaining a very old and elaborately carved oak pulpit, hallowed by the preaching of George Marsh, a former vicar, whose apprehension and subsequent martyrdom at Chester in 1555, are recorded at length in Fox's Book of Martyrs. From a Latin deed lately discovered in the chartulary of Whalley Abbey, of the date 1276, describing accurately the brooks and other boundaries of the glebe land as they at present exist, and conveying it to trustees (among whom the names of some of the oldest families at present landowners in the parish are mentioned), it would seem not improbable that part of the foundation of the church is of a much more ancient date than even the existing venerable structure. In the parish are five episcopal chapels, and several dissenting places of worship. A national school, endowed with £40 per annum, is in connexion with the church; and there are three Sunday, two daily, and four infant schools. Each chapelry has also its own schools.