CAWTHORNE, a chapelry, in the parish of Silkstone, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 5 miles (W.) from Barnsley; containing 1437 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is chiefly the property of John Spencer Stanhope, Esq., and partly of Thos. Wentworth Beaumont, Esq., lord of the manor, comprises by computation 3440 acres. Coal is abundant; sandstone and gritstone are quarried, and great quantities of limestone, brought up the Barnsley canal, are burnt into lime: there are also some seams of ironstone of excellent quality. The surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by several brooks that flow into the river Dearne. Cannon Hall, the seat of Mr. Stanhope, is a spacious mansion, situated in a park which abounds with timber and with beautiful scenery. The village is pleasantly seated on a gentle acclivity forming the southern boundary of a picturesque valley. At Barnby bridge the Barnsley canal terminates in a spacious basin, on the banks of which are wharfs, warehouses, and a wet-dock, with conveniencies for boat-building and limeburning; and from the basin is a railway to the several collieries here and in other parts of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the proprietors of certain estates, and is worth £150 per annum. The chapel, dedicated to All Saints, is a neat edifice, in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; a south aisle was added in 1828, when 276 additional sittings were obtained, of which 216 are free. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The water of a mineral spring here is slightly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen.