Cawood (All Saints)
CAWOOD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 9½ miles (S. by W.) from York, and 187 (N. by W.) from London; containing 1108 inhabitants. This place was given by King Athelstan to the see of York, about 935, in the time of Archbishop Wulstan. The magnificent palace or castle was built in the reign of Henry IV., by Archbishop Bennet; several of the prelates lived in it, and here Cardinal Wolsey resided for nearly a year previous to his arrest on a charge of high treason, by the Earl of Northumberland. The castle was dismantled, and in part demolished, at the conclusion of the parliamentary war; since which time, being abandoned by the archbishops, it has remained in a state of gradual dilapidation: the remains of the great gateway, and some few fragments, are now the only vestiges. The town is pleasantly situated near the western bank of the river Ouse, over which is a ferry: the houses are neatly built, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water. The market, which was on Wednesday, has been discontinued for many years; fairs for cattle are held on May 12th and December 19th. The parish comprises 2000 acres: the surface is flat, and subject to inundation from the river; the soil is chiefly a fertile loam, and the lands are generally in a good state of cultivation. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Prebendary of Wistow in the Cathedral of York. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, in 1776. The church, situated near the Ouse, is a neat structure with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school for girls was founded in 1731, by the Rev. Samuel Duffield, who endowed it with land now yielding a considerable annual income; and £20 per annum are paid for the instruction of children, out of an estate producing £213 per annum, vested in trustees for the repair of the highways, and the preservation of the embankments. Dr. Harsnett, Archbishop of York, who died in 1631, gave land for teaching poor boys. An almshouse was founded about 1723, by William James, Esq., who endowed it with land worth £76 per annum, for aged persons; and an almshouse for six aged persons of Wistow and Cawood not having received parochial relief, was founded in 1819, by James Waterhouse Smith, Esq.