Camborne (St. Martin)
CAMBORNE (St. Martin), a market-town and parish, in the union of Redruth, E. division of the hundred of Penwith, W. division of Cornwall, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Redruth, and 267 (S. W.) from London, on the road from Truro to Penzance; containing 10,061 inhabitants. This town, which is situated in the centre of an extensive district abounding with copper, tin, and lead mines, consists of several streets, uniformly built, but indifferently supplied with water: two book-clubs have been established. The Dolcoath copper-mine has been sunk to the depth of 1000 feet, and extends laterally for more than a mile, in a direction from east to west; the number of persons employed exceeds 1500, and the annual expenditure of the proprietors is more than £50,000. There are several other mines, on a smaller scale: the neighbourhood abounds with granite; and an iron-foundry, and a manufactory for safety-fuzes used by miners in blasting, together employ about sixty persons. Here is a station on the Hayle and Redruth railway. The market is on Saturday: the markethouse, a shed supported on pillars of granite, was erected at the expense of Lord de Dunstanville. The fairs are on March 7th, June 5th and 29th, and November 12th, and are principally for cattle. The county magistrates hold a petty-session for the district every alternate Tuesday; and a court leet is held in November, at which constables are appointed.
The parish comprises by computation 6000 acres, of which 1120 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £39. 16. 10½., and in the patronage of Lady Bassett: the tithes have been commuted for £900, and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is an ancient structure, principally in the later English style, and contains several monuments to the family of Pendarves; the altar-piece is of marble handsomely sculptured, and the pulpit of oak curiously carved. A church district, called All Saints, Tuckingmill, and including part of the parish of Illogan, was formed in 1844, and endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: another district, named Penponds, was formed in 1846. At Treslothan is a district church dedicated to St. John, the living of which is in the gift of E. W. Pendarves, Esq. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Wesleyans, and Bryanites. Mr. Arthur Woolf, an eminent civil engineer, who died in 1837, was born here about the year 1765; he made considerable improvements in the construction of steamengines, and took out a patent for the application of two cylinders. Mr. Richard Trevithic, who was born at Camborne in 1775, and died in 1835, in conjunction with Captain Andrew Vivian, now residing here, constructed the first locomotive engine, for which they took out a patent, in 1802; they also constructed a highpressure steam-engine, and invented the cylindrical boiler with a single tube, which is very economical in the use of fuel. Mr. Bickford, resident here, invented, with Mr. Thomas D'Arcy, the patent safety-fuze used by miners for blasting. John Stackhouse, Esq., of Pendarves, who was born in the parish in 1748, and died in 1819, was author of the Nereis Britannica, and editor of the Theophrasti Plantarum Historia.