Callington (St. Mary)
CALLINGTON (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and formerly a borough, in the union of Liskeard, Middle division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 10½ miles (S. by E.) from Launceston, 14 (N.) from Plymouth, and 213 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1685 inhabitants. This town, anciently called Calweton, Calvington, and Killington, is situated on a gentle acclivity, and consists principally of two spacious streets; the houses are in general of mean appearance, and irregularly built, but the town is paved, and amply supplied with water. The inhabitants had a considerable trade in wool, which has of late declined: mining is carried on to some extent, there being several copper-mines in operation, the chief of which are those at Holm-bush and Redmoor, the former employing more than 100 persons; and in the vicinity are also some manganese mines. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, of which the former is for corn and provisions, and the latter for meat only; and a cattle-market is held on the first Wednesday in every month. An excellent market-place has been opened, together with a corn-market 90 feet long, by the present lord of the manor, Lord Ashburton; it is a very commodious building, ornamented with a colonnade round it, supported on granite pillars. The fairs, chiefly for cattle and sheep, are on the first Thursday in May and September, and the first Wednesday and Thursday in November. The county magistrates hold a petty-session on the first Thursday in every month; and a portreeve and other officers for the town are appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The court-house, a commodious edifice, was built by Lord Clinton. The borough received the elective franchise in the 27th of Elizabeth, from which time it continued to return two members of parliament, till it was disfranchised by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The parish comprises 2235 acres, of which 607 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of South-Hill: the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church, a spacious structure containing three aisles, and constructed entirely of granite, was chiefly built at the expense of Nicholas de Asheton, one of the judges of the court of king's bench, who died in 1645, and to whose memory a marble tomb is in the chancel: in the churchyard is the shaft of an ancient cross, on the upper part of which is a representation of the Crucifixion. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; and a school erected by subscription, which is highly ornamental to the eastern and southern entrances to the town.