Cambridge, a university town, municipal and parliamentary borough, and the county town of Cambridgeshire. It is in itself one of the hundreds of the county, and is in the archdeaconry and diocese of Ely. It stands on the Via Devana, the river Cam, and the G.E.R., 51 miles by road and 57½ by railway N by E of London. The G.E.R. has a large station here, which is used also by the G.N., L. & N.W., and M.R., thus placing the town in connection with every part of Great Britain.
History.Cambridge is the Granta, perhaps also the Camboricum of the Romans, and most probably the Granta-ccaster of the Saxons. It was burnt by the Danes in 870 and 1010. A military station seems to have been at it in the times of the Saxons, certainly in those of the Romans, and a castle was built at it, probably on the site of the previous station, by William the Conqueror to overawe the Isle of Ely. In the castle was received Sir Osborn, whose legendary conflict with a demon knight on Gogmagog Hill was used by Sir Walter Scott for an episode in "Marmion." The town was injured by both parties in the wars of the Barons and the Roses, especially in 1216 and 1267, suffered from insurrection of the townsmen against the university in 1249, 1322, and 1381, was occupied on behalf of Queen Mary after the attempt to place Lady Jane Gray on the throne, and was seized and occupied under Cromwell for the Parliamentarians.
Site and Streets.The town stands amid a great flat tract, is not clearly seen on any approach to it till near, and even then by only the tower of St Mary, the spire of the Roman Catholic church, and the four turrets of King's College over a line of trees. Tradition alleges it to have anciently extended 3 miles along the Cam from Gramchester to Chesterton, but this is not to be believed. The present borough limits indeed include a space about 3 1/8 miles long with a mean breadth of 1½ mile, comprising 3278 acres; but the town itself, exclusive of the suburb of Chesterton, which is not in the borough, covers only about one-fifth of the space. Regent Street is a fine street, Trumpington and St Andrew's Streets also are broad, airy, and pleasant, and many new streets of small houses have recently been formed; but the other streets generally are narrow, winding, and irregularly edificed. The town has of late years been much improved by extension or renovation of public buildings, by removal of old private houses, and by erection of new ones; and, as the seat of a great university, it necessarily possesses much wealth of structure and ornament, yet it fails to impress a stranger with a fair idea of either beauty or dignity. It suffers severely from dearth of stone, and has betaken itself largely to brick and stucco; and, owing to the recent rebuilding of some of its colleges, and to the Grecian or Italian character of large portions of others, its university looks almost modern.
Antiquities.Dr Stukeley notes that the site of the Roman Granta is very traceable on the site of Cambridge towards the castle, that the Roman agger is identical with a fine terrace walk in the garden of Magdalene College, that the gateway of the castle and the churches of St Giles and St Peter are marked antiquities, that many Roman bricks have been found in the latter church's walls, and many small Roman relics in the adjoining fields, and that remains exist of three bastions raised by Cromwell. Other antiquities will be noticed in connection with the churches and the colleges.
Public Buildings.The Guild Hall, which stands on the Market Hill, has been erected at various periods, and includes within its suite of buildings the municipal offices, a fine assembly hall, 120 by 52 feet, which is admirably adapted for concerts and public meetings, a suite of rooms occupied by the Cambridge School of Art, and a reading-room and library established by the borough under the Free Libraries Act. H. M. Prison and House of Correction was erected in 1804 on Castle Hill, in the parish of Chesterton. Since it was taken over from the county by Her Majesty's Government it has been greatly improved and enlarged, and now receives prisoners from several of the surrounding counties. The Shire Hall, in which are held the assizes and sessions for the county, is a building of brick and stone in the Italian style, standing on Castle Hill adjoining the prison. There is a police station, erected in 1879, in the immediate vicinity. The Market Place, in the centre of the town, was greatly enlarged and improved about 1857, and it now forms one of the most spacious market squares in the kingdom. A fine Cattle Market, formed by the Corporation at a cost of about £15,000, on land situated between the station and the town, was opened in 1885. The Corn Exchange is a large but plain structure at the back of the Guild Hall. The Theatre Royal, in St Andrew's Street, is a small but neat building, and will seat about 900 persons. The "Spinning House," originally founded in 1628 as a workhouse and house of correction, is a structure of brick situated in St Andrew Street, and is now used as a place of confinement for lewd and disorderly females. The workhouse, in Mill Road, was erected in 1838, and has accommodation for 376 inmates.
Parishes.There are 13 parishes comprised within the borough and union of Cambridge. These are: All Saints, St Andrew the Great, St Andrew the Less, St Benedict, St Botolph, St Clement, St Edward, St Giles, St Mary the Great, St Mary the Less, St Michael, St Sepulchre, and Holy Trinity. St Peter's parish was amalgamated with St Giles' parish in 1885. There are also three ecclesiastical parishes, viz.:St Matthew's, formed in 1870 out of the parish of St Andrew the Less; St Paul's, formed out of the parishes of St Andrew the Great and Less in 1845; and St Barnabas', formed in 1889 from the parishes of St Andrew the Less, St Paul, and St Matthew. The living of All Saints is a vicarage; gross yearly value, £147, in the gift of the Master and Fellows of Jesus College. The living of St Andrew the Great is a vicarage; gross yearly value, £250, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Ely. St Andrew the Less, formerly a separate vicarage, is now amalgamated with the living of Christ Church, the latter being now the parish church. The living of Christ Church is a vicarage; net yearly value, £395, in the gift of Trustees. St Benedict is a vicarage; gross yearly value about £180, in the gift of Corpus Christi College. The living of St Botolph is a rectory; net yearly value, £150, in the gift of Queen's College. St Clement is a vicarage; yearly value, £45, in the gift of the Master and Fellows of Jesus College. The living of St Edward is a donative; net yearly value about £38, in the gift of the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall. The living of St Giles is a vicarage with that of St Peter annexed; gross yearly value, £300, in the gift of the Bishop of Ely. St Mary the Great is a vicarage; yearly value, £60, in the gift of Trinity College. The living of St Mary the Less is a vicarage; net yearly value, £100, in the gift of St Peter's College. The living of St Michael is a vicarage; gross yearly value, £46, in the gift of Trinity College. St Sepulchre is a vicarage; net yearly value, £100, in the gift of the Parishioners; and Holy Trinity is a vicarage; net yearly value, £200 with residence, in the gift of a private patron. . The living of the ecclesiastical parish of St Matthew is a vicarage; gross yearly value, £333 with residence, in the gift of the vicar of St Andrew the Less; that of St Paul is a vicarage; gross yearly value, £300 with residence, in the gift of Trustees; and that of St Barnabas is, with St Philip, a perpetual curacy; net yearly value, £148, in the gift of the vicar of St Paul's, Cambridge, and others.
Churches.The church of All Saints was reconstructed on a new site in 1864, is an ornamental edifice, and contains a monument by Chantrey to Henry Kirk White. The church of St Andrew the Great was rebuilt in 1643 and again in 1845, and contains a cenotaph to Cook the navigator. The church of St Andrew the Less or Barnwell was partly built out of Bamwell Priory, and is a small building of stone in the Lancet style. The church of St Benedict has a Saxon tower, was repaired and enlarged in 1856 and 1873, contains some interesting monuments, and was sometime served by Thomas Fuller. The church of St Botolph is an ancient structure, originally Norman, but now chiefly in the Perpendicular style, and has many monuments. The church of St Clement has an Early English door, and a fine tower and spire of 1821, was restored in 1855, and contains an octagonal font, and a monument of 1329. The church of St Edward is Early English, has a good font, and was served by Latimer. The church of St Giles was rebuilt near the site of the old church in 1875-1876. The church of St Peter, now disused, includes Roman bricks, and has a Norman door. The church of St Mary the Great is the university church, was built in 1478-1519, has a conspicuous tower of 1593-1608, surmounted by octagonal turrets, shows the architectural features of the age in which it was erected, measures within walls 120 feet by 68, and contains the grave of Martin Bucer. The church of St Mary the Less is Later English, has a rich east window, and contains a Norman font. The church of St Michael was built in 1337, and restored in 1849, is pure Decorated English, possesses the old stalls of Trinity College Chapel, and had the grave of Fagius. The church of St Sepulchre was built by the Templars in 1101, and restored by the Camden Society in 1843, is a round Norman edifice, with short massive piers, and includes restored windows, south aisle, domical ribbed vault, and campanile. The church of Holy Trinity was built in the 15th century, has a good tower and spire, contains an altar tomb to Sir Robert Taber the physician, and a monument to Henry Martyn the missionary, and was served by Charles Simeon. The churches of St Paul, St Barnabas, St John the Evangelist, Christ Church, St Philip, and St James, are all modern erections. There are two Roman Catholic churches,. one of which was built in 1890, and is a very beautiful edifice, with a spire 215 feet in height. It has some fine stained glass windows, and a magnificent baldachino over the high altar. There area Presbyterian chapel, five Baptist chapels, a Catholic Apostolic church, a Congregational chapel, a Friends' Meeting House, five Primitive Methodist and two Wesleyan Methodist chapels, and a place of meeting for the Plymouth Brethren.
Schools, &c.A grammar school was founded in 1615 by bequest of Dr Perse; was rebuilt in 1842, and again in 1889-90, and is now conducted under a scheme approved by an Order in Council issued in 1873. The Leys School is an institution established in 1874 by the Wesleyan Methodists for the purpose of affording a high-class education to the sons of their ministers and laymen. It is under the management of twenty-five governors, of whom the President of the Wesleyan Conference is (ex officio) Chairman. The Cambridge School of Art is conducted in the Guildhall. There are about twenty-five day schools in the town, which afford ample accommodation for elementary and higher-grade education. Addenbrooke's Hospital or Infirmary was founded in 1766 by bequest of Dr John Addenbrooke, and further endowed in 1813 by bequest of John Bowtell; it has now, from endowment and subscriptions, an income of about £6700. It was greatly enlarged and almost rebuilt in 1864-65, and further improved in 1878 and 1883. A smallpox hospital was erected in the SE outskirts of the borough in 1884, and a sanatorium at Mill Road, Romsey Town, in 1893. The borough is unusually rich in almshouses, many of which are of very ancient foundation, and has many private charities, supported by voluntary contributions.
Trade, &c.The town is maintained chiefly by supplying the wants of the University, but it is also the centre of a large agricultural district, and it carries on a considerable trade in corn. It possesses some extensive flour-mills, breweries, and maltings, some brick and tile works, a tobacco manufactory, and some brass and iron foundries. There is a daily market,. but the chief market-day is on Saturday, and the corn market is held on the same day. There are also fairs on June 24 and three following days, and on September 25 and the week following. There are also cattle fairs three times in the year. The town is a head post office, and the head of a petty sessional division, county court district, and union. It has four banks and publishes six newspapers.
The Borough.Cambridge is a borough by prescription, and was incorporated by Henry I. It sent two members to parliament from the time of Edward I. until the passing of the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, when the number was reduced to one. The town is governed by a mayor, high steward, recorder, ten aldermen, thirty councillors, town-clerk, treasurer, coroner, and the usual officers representing the city. There are also two aldermen and six councillors,. who represent the university. It is well paved, and has an excellent and abundant supply of water, obtained from springs in the parishes of Cherry, Hinton, and Fulbourn. The municipal borough is divided into five wards, viz. East and West Barnwell, Market, Trinity, and St Andrews. In the parliamentary borough the greater portion of the parish of Chesterton is included. The area of the parliamentary borough is 3975 acres, and the population 44,330; the population of the municipal borough is 36,983. The town gives the title of Duke to a prince of the blood royal. Sir J. Cheke, tutor of Edward VI.; Gibbons, the organist; Bishops Thirlby, Goldsborough, Rust, Townson, and Musgrave; Bennet the martyr, Dean Duport, Jeremy Taylor, Lady D. Masham, Essex the antiquary, Drake the translator of Herodotus, and Cumberland the dramatist, were natives.
The University.-Cambridge University is an incorporated society of students in all the liberal arts and sciences. It originated with or was restored by Sigebert, king of East Anglia, and was revived by Edward the Elder, but first acquired consequence about 1209, under the abbot of Croy-land. The students lived for some time in inns and hostels built for their reception, but were afterwards provided with seventeen colleges. The colleges possess equal privileges, form an aggregate body under one supreme authority, and at the same time are ruled separately, each by its own statutes. The present university statutes were confirmed by Queen Victoria by Order in Council, 31st July, 1858. They are the foundation upon which all new laws are framed. The supreme authority comprises legislative and executive. The legislative is a senate, composed of all the masters of arts, and of any higher degree whose names are on the books, and no new statute can become law without the assent of this body. The house of congregation consists of certain official persons, including the heads of colleges and professors, and of all members of the senate who live within certain limits of the university and its neighbourhood for 120 days in the year. Every measure to be submitted to the senate must first have passed this house. The council of the senate consists of the chancellor, the vice-chancellor, four heads of colleges, four professors, and eight other members of senate chosen annually from the roll, who must approve all business before it can be offered to the house of congregation. The executive includes a chancellor, generally a person of rank and non-resident, a vice-chancellor or acting governor, a high steward or judge in cases of felony, a commissary or assessor, a public orator, who acts also as official secretary, and several other officials. The members of the university are variously heads of colleges, professors, fellows, doctors in the several faculties, bachelors in divinity, graduates, bachelors in civil law and in physic, bachelors of arts, fellow-commoners, pensioners, scholars, and sizars, and all, in their several ranks, and also in their several colleges, are distinguished by differences of costume. Two-thirds, or nearly so, of the residents, live in the colleges, and the rest live in lodgings. The doctors and regent masters of arts in convocation send two members to parliament. University Buildings.-The senate-house stands on the north side of a spacious square, near the centre of the town; was built in 1722-30, after a design by Burrough, at a cost of £20,000, is exteriorly Corinthian, and interiorly Doric; measures 101 feet by 42, with a height of 32 feet; has galleries of Norway oak, and contains statues of George I. and the Duke of Somerset by Rysbrack, George II. by Wilton, and W. Pitt by Nollekens. The public schools stand on the west side of the same square, were first founded in 1443, form three sides of a small court, and contain apartments for the philosophy, divinity, law, and physic schools, and for disputations, exercises, and lectures. The university library occupies the upper part of the two quadrangles between the senate-house and Trinity hall. It contains about 500,000 volumes and over 3000 MSS. Under the Copyright Acts it is entitled to a copy of every new work published in the country. The Fitzwilliam museum, in Trumpington Street, originated in 1810, in a bequest of £100,000, a library, and a collection of works of art from Viscount Fitzwilliam, was built in 1837 and following years, after a design by Basevi, covers an area of 160 feet by 162, has a noble octastyle Corinthian portico, 76 feet high, and contains a valuable collection of paintings, statuary, books, and a valuable manuscript collection of music. The museums and lecture-rooms, in the Gothic style, on the site of the old botanic garden, were built in 1862-64. The observatory, on a rising-ground, on the Madingley Road, about a mile from the college walks, was built in 1822-25, by Mead, at a cost of £19,000, is 120 feet long, and has a domed house for a 20 feet telescope, presented by the Duke of Northumberland. The university printing-office, in Trumpington Street, was built in 1831-33 by Blore, is in the Perpendicular English style, with a lofty central tower, and looks like a church. The museum of archaeology is in Little St Mary Lane, and was opened in 1884. It contains sections devoted to classical and local archaeology, and some valuable ethnological collections formed in Fiji. The museum of geology, one of the best collections for working purposes in Great Britain, occupies a suite of rooms under the north wing of the university library. The botanical gardens formerly lay around the site of the ancient Augustinian priory, and occupied upwards of 3 acres, but now occupy a site between Trumpington Road and Hills Road, having an area of about 21 acres, and are both rich in specimens and ornately laid out. The college walks have avenues of limes, elms, and horse-chestnuts, and are overlooked by the backs of most of the larger colleges. The buildings of the Union Debating Society were erected in 1867 at a cost of £10,000. They are in the Pointed style of the 13th century. St Peter's College or Peterhouse.- This is the oldest of the colleges, and was founded in 1284 by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. It stands in Trumpington Street, on ground previously occupied by two hostels, and comprises two old courts, the larger 144 feet by 84, and a new court built in 1826. Its chapel was erected in 1632; has a fine east window, with painted glass representing the crucifixion, and got all its side windows filled, in 1858-64, with painted glass from Munich. The present foundation consists of the master, 11 fellows, and 22 scholars. It presents to 10 benefices, to one alternately with another patron, and to the mastership of one endowed school. Eminent men educated at it were Cardinal Beaufort, Archbishop Whitgift, Bishops Cosin, Law, and Walton, Dean Sherlock, the poets Crashaw, Gray, and Garth, Jer. Markland, Col. Hutchinson, the Duke of Grafton, and Lord Ellenborough. Clare College.- This was founded in 1326 by Dr Richard Badew, under the name of University Hall, was burned to the ground about 1342, was rebuilt by the sister and co-heiress of Gilbert Earl of Clare, and took then the name of Clare Hall, and was begun to be rebuilt again in 1638. It stands on the east bank of the Cam, has, over the river, a fine old stone bridge, and comprises a noble quadrangle, 150 feet by 111. Its chapel was rebuilt in 1769 at a cost of £7000, and has a picture of the Salutation by Cipriani. The college consists of a master, 15 fellows, and about 36 scholars. It presents to 18 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Heath and Tillotson, Bishop Gunning, Chaucer, Cudworth, Whiston, W. Whitehead, Parkhurst, Nicholas Ferrar, Hervey, Dr Dodd, and the Duke of Newcastle. Pembroke College.- This was founded in 1347 by the Countess of Pembroke. It stands in Trumpington Street, nearly opposite St Peter's, and consists chiefly of two courts, 95 feet by 55, with intermediate hall; some important additions made to these buildings were completed in 1883. Its chapel was built by Bishop Wren, after a design by his nephew, Sir Christopher Wren, and has a picture of the Entombment by Baroccio. The present foundation consists of a master, 13 fellows, and 26 scholars. It presents to 12 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Grindall and Whitgift; Bishops Lyndwood, Ridley, Andrews, Wren, Tomlin, and Middleton; - the martyrs Bradford and Rogers; the poets Spencer, Gray, and Mason; E. Calamy, W. Pitt, and Dr Long. Gonville and Caius College (usually called Caius College, and pronounced "Keys") was founded in 1348 by Sir Nicholas Gonville, and enlarged in 1557 by Dr John Caius. It stands at the corner of Trumpington and Trinity Streets, comprises three courts, was almost entirely rebuilt during the years 1868-70, and includes two gates by John of Padua. Its chapel is small but beautiful, and contains a brass of 1500, a monument of Dr Caius, and a picture of the Annunciation by Retz. The foundation now consists of a master, about 28 fellows, and 40 scholars. It presents to 18 benefices. This has always been the great medical college of Cambridge, and among the eminent men educated at it were Dr Harvey and many other distinguished physicians, Jeremy Taylor, Sir T. Gresham, Shadwell, Henry Wharton, Lord Thurlow, Dr Shackford, Jeremy Collier, Dr S. Clarke, and the antiquaries Grater, Chauncey, and Blomefield. Trinity Hall.- This was founded in 1350 by Bateman, bishop of Norwich. It stands near Clare College, on ground previously occupied by a hostel for the monks of Ely, and comprises two courts, one of which is modern. Its library is rich in law-works, and its chapel contains three brasses, and a painting of the Presentation by Stella. A range of students' residences, in strictly collegiate style, but of earlier character than the rest of the college buildings, with a plain oriel over the entrance doorway, and an octagonal oriel turret at the angle, crowned with a short spire, was built in 1861 at a cost of about £10,000, and replaced previous buildings burned down in 1851. Trinity Hall has a master, 13 fellows, 4 law students, and 16 scholars. It presents to 6 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Gardiner and Horsley, the martyr Bilney, Corbet, Tusser, Dr Andrews, Sir K. Naunton, Lord Chesterfield, Earl Fitzwilliam, Sir Bulwer Lytton, and Lord-Chief-Justice Cockburn. Corpus Christi or Benet College.- This was founded in 1359 by the two Guilds of Corpus Christi and the Virgin Mary. It stands in Trumpington Street, and comprises an old court of the 14th century, and a new one built in 1823. The new court measures 158 feet by 129, and has a frontage of 222 feet, with grand gateway and four massive towers. The library measures 87 feet by 22, and contains many valuable manuscripts, bequeathed by Archbishop Parker. The chapel was built in 1827, is in the Gothic style, and has windows filled with stained glass from a previous chapel of 1570, built by Lord-Keeper Bacon. The college has a master and 12 fellows, 31 scholarships, and presents to 10 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Parker and Tenison, the martyr Wishart, Bishop Latimer, the poet Fletcher, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord-Keeper Bacon, and the antiquaries Gough, Salmon, and Stukeley. King's College.- This was founded in 1441 by Henry VI. It occupies a central situation, consists of two courts, partly Italian, partly Later English, and forms the finest group of buildings in the town. The hall measures 102 feet by 36; the library, 93 feet by 27; the chapel, 316 feet by 45 1/2. The last is justly regarded as the glory of Cambridge, and is considered the best specimen of Later English in the kingdom. It was mainly built in 1441-1530, and partly restored by Wilkins in 1826, has eleven pinnacles on each side and four octagonal towers at the corners, and commands from the leads an extensive panoramic view, reaching on one side to Ely Cathedral. The pinnacles are 101 feet high, and rise from buttresses including a range of chantries between their projections; the towers are 146 1/2 feet high, and capped with cupolas; the side windows, 24 in number, are nearly 50 feet high, and filled with scripture subjects in stained glass of the time of Henry VIII.; the doors are very fine; the roof is stone, groined, with fan-tracery, in twelve compartments, without the support of a single pillar, the largest and richest of its kind in England; the stalls and screen are of the 17th century, and the altar-piece is the Descent from the Cross by Volterra. The college, which is governed by statutes made in 1882, enjoys special privileges, and has a provost, 46 fellows, 48 scholars (of whom 24 are selected from Eton, and 24 in open competition), 2 chaplains, an organist, a schoolmaster, 6 lay clerks, and 16 choristers. It presents to 37 benefices, and to one alternately with another patron. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Rotherham, Bishops Aldrich, Close, and Pearson, the martyr Frith, the chronicler Hall, the poets Waller, P. Fletcher, and Anstey, the mathematician Oughtred, the historian Coxe, the antiquary Cole, Jacob Bryant, A. Collins, Sir John Cheke, Sir F. Walsingham, Sir W. Temple, Sir R. Walpole, Sir W. Draper, Horace Walpole, and Lord Camden. Queen's College.- This was founded in 1446 by Margaret of Anjou, and enlarged in 1465 by the queen of Edward IV. Its grounds lie on both sides of the Cam, and are connected by a rustic bridge, rebuilt in 1746. Its buildings comprise three ancient-looking courts, with gateway, tower, and cloisters, and were reconstructed about 1833. A new building containing thirty-two sets of rooms was completed in 1887. The gateway is of noble design, Perpendicular, with a lierne vault. The inner court has three alleys, each 80 feet long, and contains the room of Erasmus. The hall has a fine open roof, the library about 30,000 volumes, and the chapel four brasses. The college has a president, 13 fellows. 1 fellow on the Edwards' foundation, about 22 scholars, and 4 exhibitioners. It presents to 11 benefices. A handsome new chapel was erected at a cost of £12,000 in the college in 1891. Eminent men educated at it were Erasmus, Bishops Fisher and Patrick, the antiquary Wallis, the poets Beaumont and Pomfret, T. Fuller, S. Ockley, Milner, Weever, Rymer, Shaw, and Manning. St Catherine's College.- This was founded in 1473 by Chancellor Wodelarke. It stands in Trumpington Street, and forms a court, 180 feet by 120, rebuilt in 1700, of plain appearance, but which received considerable improvement in 1869. The hall measures 42 feet by 24, the chapel 75 feet by 30. The college has a master, who is by virtue of his office a canon of Norwich Cathedral, 6 fellows, and 26 scholars. It presents to 7 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sands and Dawes, Bishops Hoadley, Sherlock, Blackall, and Overall, Dr Lightfoot, Strype, and Sparrow. Jesus' College.- This was founded in 1496, by Bishop Alcock. It stands in Jesus Lane, on the site of the Benedictine nunnery, and comprises three courts, one of them 140 feet by 120. The frontage extends 180 feet; the gateway is fine Perpendicular; the second court has an ancient cloister; the hall has a peculiarly elegant oriel and a fine wooden roof; and the chapel was the church of the nunnery, is cruciform, belonged to the 12th century, includes recent restorations, and has an altar-piece of the Presentation by Jouvenet. The college has a master, 16 fellows, 15 foundation scholars, and 17 scholars on the foundation of Tobias Rustat for the orphan sons of clergymen. It presents to 16 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Cranmer, Bancroft, and Sterne; Bishops Goodrich, Beadon, Bale, and Pearson; the poets Fenton, Fanshaw, and Coleridge; the metaphysician Hartley, the traveller Clarke, Flamstead, Venn, Sterne, Jortin, Wakefield, and R. North. Christ's College.- This was founded in 1456 under the name of God's House by Henry VI, and refounded in 1505 under its present name by the mother of Henry VII. It stands in St Andrew's Street, and forms two courts, partly built by Inigo Jones, one of them 140 feet by 120. The chapel is 84: feet long, and has paintings of Henry VII. and others, and the gravestone of Cudworth; the gardens contain a mulberry-tree planted by Milton. The college has a master, 15 fellowships, 30 scholarships, and 18 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sharp and Cornwallis; Bishops Latimer, Law, and Porteous; the poets Milton, Cleland, and Quarles; the platonist More, the blind professor Saunderson, Leland, Mede, Cudworth, T. Burnet, L. Echard, Harrington, and Paley. St John's College.- This was founded in 1511 by the will of the mother of Henry VII. It stands in St John's Street on ground previously occupied by a canons' hospital, and comprises three old courts and a new one. The entrance-gate is of brick, with four large turrets; the first court is the oldest, built in 1510-14, and measuring 228 feet by 216; the second court is of the same century, and measures 270 feet by 240; the third court is smaller than either of the former; and the fourth court was built in 1830 by Rickman and Hutchinson, measures 480 feet by 180, is in the Perpendicular English and the Tudor styles, and has a tower 120 feet high. The hall is 60 feet by 38; the library is spacious, and contains a very extensive and valuable collection of books; and the chapel measures 120 feet by 27, and has excellent stall-work, and a painting of St John by Sir R.K. Porter. A covered bridge of three arches crosses the Cam within the grounds, and is nicknamed "the Bridge of Sighs." A spacious new court, a new master's lodge, and a magnificent new chapel, after designs by Sir G.G. Scott, were founded in 1864. These buildings cost an immense sum; they occupy the site of a large number of houses which were removed to make way for them; the new chapel abuts upon St John Street, was opened in May 1869, alone cost about £57,000, and is a chief ornament of the town; and the other new buildings stand between the previously existing body of the college and the river on the Bridge Street side. The college has a master, 56 fellows, 60 foundation scholars, 9 sizars proper, 42 other sizars, and an organist. It presents to 50 livings and the masterships of 5 endowed grammar schools. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Fisher, Stillingfleet, Watson, Beveridge, and Morgan; the poets Sackville, Wyat, Ben Jonson, Herrick, Hammond, Prior, Brome, Otway, A. Phillips, Browne, Kirke White, and Wordsworth; the historian Cave, the antiquary Baker, Sir J. Cheke, R. Ascham, Sir J. Wyatt, Sir K. Digby, Lord Burleigh, Lord Chancellor Egerton, Lord Falkland, the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Keeper Guildford, Fairfax, Cartwright, Stackhouse, Whittaker, Dr Bentley, Bowyer, Pegge, S. Jenyns, Briggs, Home Tooke, the Marquis of Rockingham, and Wilberforce. Cavendish College.- The buildings of this college are situated on the Hills Road, 1 1/4 mile SSE of the town. The college was founded in order to enable students to obtain the degree of B.A. at a moderate cost, and at the earliest practicable age. It was recognised as a public hostel in 1882, but has since ceased to exist. Magdalene College.- This was begun in 1509 by the Duke of Buckingham, and completed in 1542 by Lord Chancellor Audley. It stands in Bridge Street, on the site of the original Augustinian priory, and comprises two courts, one of them 110 feet by 78. The library contains the collection of Samuel Pepys, including his celebrated diary. The college has, under the statutes of 1860, 8 fellows and 12 scholars. It presents to 6 benefices. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Grindall, Bishops Cumberland and Walton, Lord-Keeper Bridgman, the mathematician Waring, Pepys, Duport, and Waterland. Trinity College.- This was founded in 1546 by Henry VIII. It stands in Trinity Street, on ground previously occupied by seven hostels and two colleges. One of the colleges bore the name of Michael House, and was founded in 1324 by Hervey de Stanton; the other bore the name of King's Hall, and was founded in 1337 by Edward III., and both were suppressed by Henry VIII. The present college comprises three courts, called the Great Court, Nevile's Court, and King's Court. The Great Court is entered by a fine old gateway, measures 1202 feet in circuit, and has an octagonal conduit in the centre. Nevile's Court was built in 1609 by D. Nevile, and measures 228 feet by 148. King's Court was built in 1823-26, after designs by Wilkins, at a cost of £40,000, displays much elegance, and was named in honour of George IV., who headed the subscription for it with a donation of £1000. The hall in the Great Court is 100 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 50 feet high, and is in the Tudor style. The master's lodge, in the same court, is large and lofty, and has since the time of Elizabeth been the residence of the sovereigns visiting the university. The library, in Nevile's Court, was designed by Wren, is 190 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 38 feet high, and contains the manuscript of "Paradise Lost" a statue of Lord Byron by Thorwaldsen, and busts of eminent members of the college by Roubiliac. The chapel in the Great Court is Late Perpendicular, 204 feet long, 34 feet wide, and 44 feet high, and has an altar-piece by West, and the ante-chapel contains Roubiliac's statue of Newton. The college has 60 fellowships, 74 scholarships, 16 sizarships, 3 professorships, and it presents absolutely to 63 livings, to 2 in turn with other patrons, and to the mastership of 1 endowed grammar school. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Tunstal and Watson; the poets Cowley, Dryden, Donne, Herbert, G. Fletcher, Marvel, V. Bourne, Lee, Hayley, Byron, and Crabbe; the astrologer Dee, Robert Earl of Essex, Whitgift, Sir Edward Coke, Lord Bacon, Fulke Lord Brooke, Sir R. Cotton, Sir H. Spelman, P. Holland, Hacket, Wilkins, Pearson, Barrow, Willoughby, Bentley, Gale, Ray, Cotes, Robert Nelson, C. Middleton, Le Neve, Maskeline, Sir Isaac Newton, Villiers, Governor Pownall, Sir R. Filmer, Spencer Percival, Lord Lansdowne, Lord Macaulay, Dr Whewell, and Professor Sedgwick. Emmanuel College.- This was founded in 1584 by Sir W. Mildmay. It stands in St Andrew's Street, on the site of the Dominican priory, and comprises two courts, one of them 128 feet by 107. The chapel was finished in 1677 by Archbishop Sancroft, after designs by Wren, and has an altar-piece of the Prodigal Son by Amiconi. In 1886 a new lecture room was built over the library, and accommodation was provided for 14 additional students. The college has 13 fellowships, about 24 scholarships, and it presents to 23 livings and the mastership of 2 endowed grammar schools. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sancroft and Manners-Sutton; Bishops Hall, Bedell, Hurd, and Percy; the commentator Poole, the Bible translator Chaderton, the mathematician Wallis, the orientalist Castell, the antiquaries Twysden and Morton, Sir W. Temple, Joshua Barnes, Blackwall, Farmer, Martyn, Parr, Temple, and Akenside. Sidney-Sussex College.- This was founded in 1596 by the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex. It stands in Sidney Street, on the site of the Greyfriars monastery, and comprises two courts, restored by Wyatville. The hall measures 60 feet by 27, and the chapel has an altar-piece of the Repose of the Holy Family by Pittoni. The college has 10 fellowships, 24 scholarships, and it presents to 8 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Bramhall, Bishops Reynolds, Seth Ward, and Wilson of Sodor, 0. Cromwell, Chief Baron Atkyns, the historian May, Fuller, Comber, L'Estrange, and Twining. Downing College.- This was chartered in 1800 and founded in 1807, by will of Sir George Downing, Bart. The buildings stand between Trumpington Street and Regent Street, were erected after designs by Wilkins, at a cost of £60,000, and form a quadrangle in the Grecian style. The foundation now consists of a master, 2 professors, 6 fellows, 6 foundation and some minor scholars. It presents to 2 benefices. Selwyn College.- This college was founded in memory of Dr George Augustus Selwyn, bishop of New Zealand, 1841-67, and of Lichfield, 1867-78, was incorporated by royal charter in 1882, and recognised as a public hostel by the university in 1883. New buildings were opened in 1889. It was established with the object of affording, at a very moderate expense, a university education in accordance with the principles of the Church of England. There are about 125 undergraduates in residence. Newnham College.- This college was formed by the amalgamation of the Newnham Hall Company with the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women. in Cambridge, to afford a university education to women, and by a grace of the Senate in 1881 female students of this and similar institutions within the precincts of the University, who have complied with the necessary conditions, may be admitted to the previous examination and the Tripos examination. New buildings were erected in 1893. Ridley Hall.- This is an institution designed to furnish a hostel for residence and study for students who are graduates of the university and candidates for holy orders in the Church of England. It was founded by members of the Evangelical party, and the building, a fine edifice of brick in the Tudor Gothic style, was dedicated in 1882. It has about 30 students. Ayerst Hall.- This is a building in the Queen Anne style, standing on the south side of Parker's Place. It was opened in 1884, its chief object being to enable students in theology to keep terms at Cambridge. It is, however, open to candidates for all university examinations. Girton College.- This institution, which is located in Girton parish, about 1 1/2 mile from Cambridge, was first opened at Hitchin in 1869, and was removed here in 1873. It is designed to afford education to young women on university principles, and on a self-supporting basis. By a grace of the Senate of 1881, female students of this or any similar institution within the precincts of the university who have fulfilled the conditions and standing which members of the university are required to fulfil, may be admitted to the previous examination and the Tripos examinations. It possesses a very efficient staff of instructors, and on several occasions the standard of a high-honour man has been attained.
The following is a list of the administrative units in which this place was either wholly or partly included.
|Poor Law union||Cambridge|
Any dates in this table should be used as a guide only.
Directories & Gazetteers
We have transcribed the entry for Cambridge from the following:
- Samuel Lewis' A Topographical Dictionary of England, by Samuel Lewis, seventh edition, published 1858. (Cambridge)
Land and Property
The Return of Owners of Land in 1873 for Cambridgeshire is available to browse.
Online maps of Cambridge are available from a number of sites:
- Bing (Current Ordnance Survey maps).
- Google Streetview.
- National Library of Scotland. (Old maps)
- old-maps.co.uk (Old Ordnance Survey maps to buy).
- Streetmap.co.uk (Current Ordnance Survey maps).
- A Vision of Britain through Time. (Old maps)
Newspapers and Periodicals
The British Newspaper Archive have fully searchable digitised copies of the following Cambridgeshire papers online:
- Cambridge Independent Press
- Cambridge Chronicle and Journal
- Huntingdon, Bedford & Peterborough Gazette
The Visitations of Cambridgeshire 1575 and 1619 is available online.