Cadder or Calder, Lanarkshire
CADDER, or CALDER, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of LANARK, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Kirkintilloch, and 4½ (N. by E.) from Glasgow; containing, with the village of Auchinearn, the hamlet of Bishopbridge, and the former qooad sacra district of Chryston, 4425 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation in the midst of a district abounding with wood and water, of which its appellation in the old British language, Calder, is significant. It is supposed to have owed its origin as a parish to the foundation of a church by St. Patrick, who is said to have been born in the immediate vicinity, and, towards the close of the fifth century, to have founded numerous other churches in the neighbourhood, which were subsequently endowed by Convallus II. with lands for the maintenance of their respective clergy. The parish is about fourteen miles in length, and four in breadth. Its surface, which is generally undulating, is diversified with various tributary streams that fall into the river Kelvin, the parish boundary on the north and west. Of the lakes the most important were, Auchinloch, nearly in the centre of the parish, from which, on its being drained some years since, a stream was conducted under the Forth and Clyde canal to the Kelvin; Loch Grog, drained in 1844; and Robroystou loch, in the western part, now almost reclaimed into arable land, and two-thirds of which are beyond the boundaries of Cadder. Johnston loch, in the eastern part, is about a mile in circumference, and is employed, by the Forth and Clyde Company, as a reservoir for supplying their canal, for which purpose, also, they have appropriated the Bishop's loch, a small portion of which is within this parish.
The SOIL, is extremely various; in some parts, a rich black loam; in others, mossy; on the banks of the various streams, chiefly alluvial; and in some parts, sandy. Several of the mosses have been reclaimed, affording excellent crops. About 9000 acres of land are in cultivation, about 300 are deep moss, and there are something more than 500 acres in plantations, the principal of which, on the Cadder estate, contains many trees of ancient and luxuriant growth. There are several extensive dairy-farms, mostly stocked with cows of the Ayrshire breed. The crops are oats, wheat, potatoes, barley, rye, and turnips, in the production of which the improved system of agriculture is adopted. The annual value of real property in the parish is £21,941. The substratum is partly freestone, and a whinstone dyke which extends from the river Clyde to the river Forth runs the whole length of the parish; the freestone is of the finest quality, and great quantities of it are sent to Glasgow, where it is used in the construction of the principal buildings. Limestone is prevalent, and is largely wrought: coal, also, exists in the parish, at a considerable depth, but the quality is not sufficiently good to remunerate the labour of working it. There are some extensive tracts of clay, for pottery and bricks; various elegant specimens of vases and chimney cases have been produced, and fire-bricks, crucibles, common bricks, house-tiles, and draining-tiles are made. Ironstone abounds, and is wrought to a considerable extent by the Carron Company. The Forth and Clyde canal intersects the western portion of the parish for upwards of five miles, passing in a line nearly parallel with the river Kelvin, The Kirkintilloch railway, opened in 1826, crosses its eastern extremity; the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway, opened in 1831, passes on the south side, for several miles, and the line of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, opened in 1842, divides the parish into two unequal portions. The village of Cadder, formerly extensive, contains at present only sixty-four inhabitants, employed on the lands of its proprietor, whose mansion, lately enlarged, forms the principal object of interest in the place.
For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of Glasgow, synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is in the Heritors and Kirk Session, and the stipend of the incumbent is £280. 8., with a manse, and a glebe of about ten acres. The church, erected in 1830, is a neat edifice of stone, in the early English style, with a square tower, and is adapted for a congregation of about 800 persons. There are three parochial schools, situated respectively at Cadder, Chryston, and Auchinearn: the master in Cadder has a salary of £26, and the fees amount to about £56; the master at Chryston has £17, with about £56 fees, and the master of Auchinearn has £8. 10., with £12 fees, and the interest of 1000 merks bequeathed by the Rev. James Warden, a former incumbent. Another school, in the village of Auchinloch, is endowed with the interest of £300, bequeathed by Patrick Baird, Esq.; and a fifth school, which is free, has been lately built at Bishopbridge, by the family at Cadder, who allow the mistress £40 per annum. The vallum Antonini, or Graham's Dyke, is situated nearly parallel with the Kelvin, at a distance from it of about half a mile: its remains are very distinct near the church and glebe. Within the parish were four stations on the wall, at Easter Cadder, the church, Hilton, and Balmuldie. In the eastern wing of the House of Cadder is a stone found in the neighbourhood, a representation of which, with the Roman inscription, may be seen in Camden's Britannia. In 1813, a gold coin of Antoninus Pius was discovered, in a very perfect state, on clearing out the pond of Cadder, and in levelling the lawn before the house, the foundations of the old tower appeared, in which was found a vessel containing more than 300 gold coins, of the size of a shilling, with the inscription Jacobus.-See CHRYTON.