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St Andrews, Fifeshire

Historical Description

ANDREW'S ST., a city, the seat of a university, and anciently the metropolitan see of Scotland, in the district of St-Andrew's, county of Fife, 42 miles (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Boarhills, Grange, Kincaple, and Strathkinness, 6017 inhabitants, of whom 3959 are in the city. This place, which is of remote antiquity, formed part of the territories of the Pictish kings, of whom Hergustus, whose capital was at Abernethy, had a palace or hunting-seat near the site of the present town, at that time a forest frequented by wild boars, and thence, as well as from its situation on a promontory overlooking the bay, called Mucross, a name still retained in that of the present village of Boarhills. The origin of the town is ascribed by tradition to St. Regulus, abbot of the monastery of Patrae, in the Grecian province of Achaia, who about the year 370, attended by a company of his brethren, sailed from Patrae, bearing with him a portion of the relics of the Apostle St. Andrew, which had been deposited there; and was driven by a storm into the bay of this place, where with difficulty, after the loss of their ship, the crew escaped to land, with the sacred relics they had preserved. Hergustus, the Pictish monarch, informed of the arrival of these strangers, came to visit them in person, and, pleased with the simplicity and sanctity of their manners, became a convert to Christianity; granted them his palace, with the adjoining lands for a settlement: and after the subsequent erection of a church, changed the name Mucross into Kilrymont, or "the church of the King's Mount". St. Regulus lived for thirty years afterwards at this place, under the patronage of Hergustus, disseminating the doctrines of the Christian faith throughout this part of the country, and was buried in the church over which he had so long presided. After the subjugation of the Pictish dominion, and the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, by Kenneth McAlpine, that king transferred the seat of government from Abernethy to this place, to which, in honour of the Apostle, he gave the name of St. Andrew's, by which it has ever since been designated; and on the division of the country into dioceses, in the reign of Malcolm III., St. Andrew's became the metropolitan see of the kingdom. In 1120, an Augustine priory was founded here, by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, who also, in 1140, obtained from David I. a charter erecting the town into a royal burgh. To this important priory the nomination of the bishop was transferred, partially at first, but completely in 1273, from the Culdees, whose chapel of St. Regulus served as the diocesan church before the cathedral was erected. In 1159, Bishop Arnold commenced the erection of the cathedral, which was continued under his successors for more than a century and a half, and ultimately completed by Bishop Lamberton, a zealous adherent of Bruce. According to the uniform practice of the period, the eastern portion was first finished, and at once used for the performance of divine service; the transepts and nave were next proceeded with, and the whole was consecrated by Bishop Lamberton in 1318, in the presence of King Robert I. and the chief persons in the kingdom. In 1200, Bishop Roger built the castle of St. Andrew's, which was for many years the residence of the prelates of the see; and in 1374 Bishop Wishart founded a Dominican priory.

After the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, Edward I. of England summoned the Scottish parliament to meet at St. Andrew's, and compelled every member, with the exception only of Sir William Wallace, to swear fealty to his government. A few years subsequently, the same parliament assembled here to take the oath of allegiance to Robert Bruce. Edward III. of England, in 1336, placed a garrison in the castle, which, in the year following, was reduced by the Earls of March and Fife; and in 1401, David, Duke of Rothesay, brother of James I., on a false charge of treason was imprisoned in the castle by his uncle, the Duke of Albany, and afterwards removed to Falkland, where he was starved to death. The university of St. Andrew's was founded in 1410, by Bishop Wardlaw, and in the following year was incorporated by charter, conferring all the powers and privileges enjoyed by foreign universities. James I., after regaining his liberty, visited the establishment, bestowing on its members many marks of his favour, and in 1431 granted them a charter of exemption from all taxes, tolls, or services, in every part of the kingdom. Bishop Kennedy, nephew of James I., in 1455, founded the college of St. Salvator, chiefly for theological studies and the liberal arts; the foundation charter was confirmed by Pope Nicholas V., and the institution was subsequently endowed with numerous royal grants. In 1471, the bishops of St. Andrew's were dignified with the title of archbishops, and the metropolitan see was elevated to the primacy of the kingdom. In 1512, John Hepburn, prior of the Augustinian monastery, founded the college of St. Leonard, and endowed it from the revenues of the hospital which had been built for the reception of pilgrims visiting the shrine of St. Andrew, and out of his own private property, chiefly for the education of the brethren of the convent. During the numerous religious persecutions which preceded the Reformation, George Buchanan, afterwards preceptor of James VI., was imprisoned in the castle of St. Andrew's, for writing against the Franciscan friars, but contrived to make his escape through one of the windows, and fled into England. In 1537, Archbishop James Beaton, uncle and predecessor of Cardinal David Beaton, obtained a bull from Paul III. authorizing the foundation of a college to be dedicated to St. Mary, on the site of the ancient pedagogium; he endowed the institution with certain tithes, and soon after the commencement of the building, his successor the cardinal undertook the completion. Cardinal Beaton, however, had only removed the fabric of the pedagogy, when his death also put a stop to further progress: the next archbishop, Hamilton, finished the erection, and in virtue of a bull from Pope Julius III., in 1552, endowed it out of his episcopal revenues, for the maintenance of four professors and a number of bursars and servants. The establishment was remodelled in 1579, by Archbishop Adamson and George Buchanan, and since that time has been confined to the study of theology. In 1546, Cardinal Beaton was assassinated in the castle, and his dead body suspended for a time on the wall, from the same window whence he had witnessed the martyrdom of Wishart. In 1559, after a sermon preached by John Knox the reformer, the populace immediately commenced the destruction of the venerable cathedral of St. Andrew's, which in a few hours they reduced to a heap of ruins; and they afterwards plundered and destroyed other religious establishments of the city.

The history of St. Andrew's presents many features of interest, connected with the progress of the Reformation in Scotland, as might naturally be expected from the city being a stronghold of the Church whose corruptions made the great change necessary. The first martyr to reformed opinions in Scotland was John Resby, an Englishman, who, having become a convert to the doctrines of Wycliffe, Huss, and Jerome of Prague, preached those doctrines within the diocese of St. Andrew's, and was apprehended by command of Bishop Wardlaw. Resby suffered at Perth, where he had been signally successful as a reformed preacher; and a quarter of a century afterwards, in 1432, Paul Crow, a native of Bohemia, and a disciple of Huss and Jerome, was condemned to the stake at St. Andrew's, in which city he had settled as a physician, and had been exceedingly zealous in propagating reformed truth. Another martyr connected with St. Andrew's was the famous Patrick Hamilton, abbot of Fern, and nephew of the Earl of Arran, who suffered in 1527, during the archiepiscopate of James Beaton, at the early age of twenty-three. About four years after this martyrdom, which took place in front of St. Salvator's college, Henry Forrest, a young man, a native of Linlithgow, invested with a small order in the Church, was incarcerated by the same archbishop, and condemned to suffer at the stake as a heretic, the sentence being carried into effect at the north gate of the cathedral, that the people of Angus, seeing the flames, might forbear to embrace doctrines whose profession was attended with consequences so dreadful. Soon afterwards, two persons of the names of Gourlay and Straiton were consigned to the flames in the city, charged with denying the supremacy of the pope, and propagating the doctrines of protestantism. The next martyr was the celebrated George Wishart, for the purpose of whose martyrdom, says Spottiswood, "a scaffold was erected on the east front of the castle, towards the abbey, with a great tree in the midst of it, in manner of a gibbet, unto which the prisoner was to be tied; and right against it was all the munition of the castle planted, if, perhaps, any should press by violence to take him away. The fore tower was hung with tapestry, and rich cushions laid, for the ease of the cardinal (Beaton) and prelates who were to behold that spectacle." Wishart suffered in 1545, urging the people to cling to the good word of God, and the true gospel of Christ. The spot where the martyrdom took place is at the foot of North Castle-street. In the spring of 1558 suffered the last martyr of St. Andrew's in the cause of the Reformation, Walter Mill, an aged priest of the parish of Lunan, near Montrose, who was detected by Archbishop Hamilton, and condemned to suffer in front of the principal entrance to the cathedral. Being upwards of eighty years of age, he was unable to walk without help to the place of execution; and though some of the previous martyrdoms had presented features of extreme barbarity, yet the cruelty of persecuting so venerable a man was especially conspicuous, rousing the indignation of the people that witnessed the melancholy scene. Within the last few years, a monument in memory of those who suffered at St. Andrew's by fire, in the cause of truth, has been erected at the west end of the Scores, at the top of the declivity towards the Links.

In 1583, James VI., escaping from the thraldom in which he was held by Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, shut himself up in the castle, by connivance of the governor, and was joined here by a number of his loyal subjects. After his accession to the English throne, he assembled here a meeting of the prelates and principal clergy, to deliberate on the future interests of the Church. In 1645, the Scottish parliament met in the lower room of what is now the university library, and passed sentence of death upon Sir Robert Spottiswood, son of the late archbishop, and three other royalists, who had been taken prisoners at the battle of Philiphaugh, and who were publicly executed in the principal street of the city. In 1679, Archbishop Sharpe was murdered at Magus Muir, within four miles of the city, by a party of Covenanters, of whom five, that were afterwards taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell Bridge, were executed on the spot where the murder was committed, and their bodies hung in chains. Previously to the Reformation, the city was a place of considerable commercial importance, and the resort of numerous merchants from France, Holland, and other trading ports; and according to Martine, at the Senzie fair, held within the priory in the month of April, and which lasted fifteen days, its harbour was filled with two or three hundred vessels from Flanders, Holland, France, and other parts of the commercial world. But after the Reformation, and the consequent suppression of its ecclesiastical supremacy, its trade and shipping fell into rapid decay. In 1655, it was so reduced that a petition was addressed by the magistrates and council to General Monk, praying to be relieved from an assessment, on the ground of "the total decay of shipping and sea trade, and the removal of the most eminent inhabitants"; and in 1656, there was only one vessel, of twenty tons' burthen, belonging to the port. The chief support of the inhabitants, after the Reformation, was derived from its university; and although its trade has in some degree revived, yet the city has never regained its original commercial importance. An elaborate History of St. Andrew's, abounding in interesting ecclesiastical information, has been written by the Rev. Charles John Lyon, M.A., the episcopal clergyman in the city.

The TOWN is beautifully situated on the bay of St. Andrew's in the German Ocean, and mainly consists of three spacious and nearly parallel streets, of which the principal is South-street, at whose western extremity is Argyle Port, the only remnant of the ancient fortifications of the city; it is still in good preservation, and over the arched gateway are the city arras. On the north of South-street is Market-street, to the north of which is North-street; and still further to the north, and bordering upon the bay, is said to have been Swallow-street, formerly the principal residence of the merchants, but which, if it ever existed, has long since disappeared, and the site been converted into a public walk called the Scores. The three streets are intersected at right angles by various smaller streets; and a new street called Bell-street has been formed, connecting North with Market street, and which has since been extended to South-street. The houses are generally well built, and of handsome appearance, and many of them are spacious; the streets are paved, and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are supplied with excellent water, though in insufficient quantity. A literary, scientific, and antiquarian society was instituted in 1838; the mechanics have established a public library and reading-room, and there is a library and reading-room supported by annual subscriptions of one guinea. The sea-beach is well adapted for bathing; and near the castle, on an eminence overlooking the sea, a building has been erected containing every requisite accommodation of hot and cold baths. On the extensive links to the west of the town, the ancient game of golf is pursued by the inhabitants, as their principal recreation; a club for that purpose was established in 1754, which consists of about 400 members, and holds two meetings in the year, and to such an extent is this amusement generally followed, that not less than 5000 balls are annually used by the players. The Union Club consists of 230 members; every member must belong to the golf club, and must pay the annual subscription of ten shillings, with £2 entrance fee: in the building rented by the club is an excellent reading-room, supported by the members resident in the city. The environs of the town possess much beauty and variety of scenery, and the numerous remains of its ancient ecclesiastical structures, and its colleges and public buildings, give to it a venerable and interesting appearance. Its salubrity of climate, the easy access to it by the St. Andrew's branch of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway, and the remarkable facilities it affords for education, also render it a desirable residence. It is especially adapted as a place of retirement from the fatigues of military life or of commerce, and visiters come to it from very considerable distances on account of the advantages it presents for bathing.

Within the last few years, St. Andrew's has attracted public notice for the spirited improvements that have been carried into effect by its authorities. These improvements may be dated from the year 1842, when Major Hugh Lyon Playfair, of St. Leonard's, was elected chief magistrate of the burgh: through the energy and public spirit of that gentleman, the town has been improved in a variety of respects, and now presents a more worthy remnant of its bygone splendour. The condition of the streets first claimed attention; they have been mostly repaired, and provided with suitable foot pavement, projections have been removed, and the public convenience and comfort has been generally studied. Bell-street has been extended, as already observed, to South-street; other lines of building have been raised, and the structure of Argyle or West Port, by which South-street is entered from the west, has been completely renovated. It was mainly through the active zeal of the provost, that the Madras Infant School was built in 1844, and that further grants were obtained from government in 1844 and 1847, for the completion of the new buildings of the United College. On the removal of the infant school to its present convenient and healthful position, he converted the building behind the parish church, in which the school had previously been taught, into a spacious city hall, supplying a desideratum for the accommodation of public meetings, long felt to exist. It may be noticed as a gratifying feature in the various improvements, that they have all been carried out with the utmost regard to the preservation of the ancient architectural remains, which have, moreover, been so freed from every thing unseemly, that the ruins of the city are now more worthy than ever of the inspection of the visiter. Provost Playfair has also displayed a warm interest in the moral and spiritual improvement of the labouring classes, especially of the long-neglected fisher population. Such is a brief account of what has been done on behalf of the ancient and once metropolitan city of St. Andrew's within the last few years, chiefly through the perseverance of its active provost. But for carrying out these improvements, the public are also specially indebted to the distinguished liberality of the citizens and the members of the corporation, as without the contributions of the former, and frank co-operation of the latter, the greater number of these works of reform could not have been effected. An account of the recent changes will be found in the History of St. Andrew's by the Rev. Charles Roger, published in 1849, from which some particulars have been derived for this article.

The UNIVERSITY, which consists of St. Mary's or the New College, and the United Colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard, is under the control of a chancellor, chosen by the senatus academicus; two principals appointed by the crown, one for St. Mary's, with an average stipend of £313, and one for St. Salvator's and St. Leonard's, with an average income of £338; and a rector, elected by the professors and students. The principal of St. Mary's is also primarius professor of divinity in his college, taking the department of systematic theology: his total income is above stated. The professorships of ecclesiastical history, biblical criticism, and oriental languages, in St. Mary's, and the professorship of mathematics in the United College, are in the patronage of the Crown, and are valued respectively at £354, £306, £279, and £386, per annum. The professorships in the United College in its own gift, are, the Greek, valued at £418; logic, £338; moral philosophy, £322; and natural philosophy, £313: that of medicine, £316, is in the patronage of the university. The professorship of humanity, also in the United College, valued at £422, is in the gift of the Marquess of Titchfield; the professorship of civil history, valued at £230, is in the patronage of the Marquess of Ailsa; and the lectureship of chemistry, founded from a bequest by Dr. Gray, and to which the first appointment was made in 1840, is valued at £70, and is in the patronage of the Earl of Leven. The senatus academicus consists of the principals and professors of both colleges, and the rector of the university presides at its meetings. By this body alone are degrees conferred, the several faculties recommending the candidates.

The College of St. Mary is confined to the study of theology. The students neither wear gowns, nor pay any fees, but previously to their admission, must have passed through the ordinary routine of classical and philosophical studies in some of the Scottish colleges; the session commences on the 1st of December, and closes on the 31st of March. In the gift of this college are twenty bursaries, among which are, one of £18, two of £15 each, ten between £15 and £10, three of £10, and one of £7. Of these twenty bursaries the greater number have been merged into a common fund, which, at the close of the session, is divided among those students who are not otherwise provided with bursaries, according to their respective circumstances and merits. The college has also the patronage of several incumbencies. The buildings, which have been restored, and partly rebuilt, by government, occupy two sides of a quadrangle: on the west side are the lecture-rooms and dining-hall, and on the north the principal's official house, and also the university library, containing more than 50,000 volumes, open to the use of both colleges. The structure of the library is very spacious, comprising four large halls. Its front towards the street is ornamented with a series of shields, containing the armorial bearings of the several chancellors of the university, from its foundation to the present time.

The Colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard were united by act of parliament, in 1747, and placed under the superintendence of one principal. The students wear gowns of scarlet frieze, and pay a fee of £3. 3. to each of the professors whose lectures they attend; the session commences on the first Tuesday in October, and closes on the last Friday in April. In the gift of the college are sixty-four bursaries, of the aggregate value of £840. Eight are in the patronage of the Madras school; seven in that of the university and united college; three, of about £90 each, in the patronage of Sir Alexander Ramsay, Bart., for candidates of the names of Ramsay, Durham, Carnegie, and Lindsay; and the remainder are open to general competition. The college has also the patronage of the livings of Dunino, Kemback, Kilmany, Cults, and Forteviot. The buildings have been completely renovated and much enlarged, by government, at an expense of about £18,600. They form a spacious quadrangle, containing the apartments in which the professors deliver their lectures; a hall; a venerable chapel, in which is the splendid tomb of the founder of St. Salvator's, Bishop Kennedy, with an inscription almost entirely obliterated; a museum connected with the literary, scientific, and antiquarian society of St. Andrew's; and other accommodation. The chapel, which was formerly much larger, and had a beautifully groined roof, since removed from an unfounded apprehension of insecurity, is now used as the parish church of St. Leonard. In the tomb of Bishop Kennedy were found, in 1683, an exquisitely wrought silver mace, now appropriated to the use of the college, and five others merely plated, of which two are preserved in the college of St. Mary, and one each were presented to the universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. The college also possesses three silver arrows which were annually awarded as prizes to a company of archers, from the year 1618 to 1751, and, after being held by the winners for one year, were returned with silver medals attached to them; to one are appended thirty-nine medals, weighing together 166 ounces, and to another thirty, weighing fifty-five ounces.

Of the college of St. Leonard, now in ruins, all that remains is the roofless chapel, the hall, and some other buildings which form dwellings. In the chapel are the supposed monument of the founder, Prior Hepburn; the monument of Robert Stewart, Earl of March, bishop-elect of Caithness, and commendator of the priory of St. Andrew's; the tomb of John Wynram the reformer; and a mural monument to Robert Wilkie, for twenty-one years principal of the college. The hall contained the refectory and dormitories of the students; and on one of the walls is the inscription "Erexit Gul. Guild. S.S.T.D.," with the date "1650".

Among the many distinguished men who have studied, or held office, in the university of St. Andrew's, may be mentioned Sir David Lindsay, of the Mount, one of the most celebrated Scottish poets. John Knox, who entered as a student in 1524, early devoted himself to the Protestant cause, and about 1542, as a regent in the university, inculcated doctrines contrary to the tenets of the Church, for which he was compelled to seek personal security by flight. After being driven from place to place, he at length found an asylum for a time, in 1547, in the castle of St. Andrew's, then in the possession of Cardinal Beaton's assassins. It was while resident here that he first publicly preached the Gospel. Some years later, he preached at St. Andrew's the sermon already referred to as leading to the destruction of the chief ecclesiastical buildings in the city. He was successively appointed minister of the congregations at Edinburgh and St. Andrew's; and after the troubles of the period had terminated in the public recognition of the Reformed faith, he was statedly fixed as minister in the former city. In 1570, on account of his health, Knox retired to St. Andrew's, where he remained till within a few weeks of his last illness and death: he died at Edinburgh on the 24th November, 1572. Other eminent men who studied or taught in the university were, George Buchanan, the historian; Andrew Melville; Samuel Rutherford, author of the well-known "Letters "; Archbishop Sharpe; Dr. Adam Ferguson, author of the "History of the Roman Republic"; Dr. James Playfair, author of a complete System of Chronology; Dr. Thomas Chalmers, the distinguished preacher and theological writer; Lord Campbell, lord chief-justice of the court of Queen's Bench; &c., &c.

The Madras College, situated in South-street, was founded by the late Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, who in 1831 conveyed, for that and other purposes, to the provost of St. Andrew's, the two ministers of the parish, and the professor of Greek in the university, £60,000 three per cent, reduced annuities, and £60,000 three per cent, consols. Of these funds, five-twelfths were to be transferred by them to the provost, magistrates, and town council of Edinburgh, of Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, and Inverness, for the foundation of schools on the Madras system; one-twelfth to the trustees of the Royal Naval School, for a similar purpose; and one-twelfth to the provost and council of St. Andrew's, Dr. Bell's native place, for the formation of a permanent fund for the moral and religious improvement of the city. The remaining five shares were to be vested in the same trustees, substituting only the sheriff depute of Fife for the professor of Greek, after the death of the present professor, for the erection and endowment of a college to be called the Madras College of St. Andrew's, and for the establishment of eight bursaries in the United College, tenable by such as have been three years in the Madras College. Buildings were soon after erected, in the Elizabethan style, from a design by Mr. Burn, architect, of Edinburgh, inclosing a spacious quadrangular area, and containing the requisite class-rooms for the school, and two handsome residences for the English and classical masters. The college is under the visitation of the lord-lieutenant of the county, the lord justice clerk of Scotland, and the bishop of Edinburgh. It is conducted on the Madras system, by a classical master and an assistant, and an English master, who has also an assistant, the former having a salary of £50, and the latter of £25, from the funds of the college, in addition to their fees; by masters of arithmetic, writing, and the modern languages, each of whom has a salary of £50, in addition to their fees; and by masters of the mathematics, geography, drawing, and church music. The total number of the pupils is about 900, including those of the English and grammar schools of the city, which have been incorporated with this institution; and about 150 children of the poorer citizens, also, receive a gratuitous education in the establishment. In another part of the town is the Madras infant school, erected in 1844, partly out of the Bell fund, and partly by means of a government grant.

The only manufactures in the town are, that of golf balls, of which about 10,000 are annually made; and the weaving of linen for the manufacturers of Dundee. The TRADE of the port is very inconsiderable. Some vessels occasionally bring cargoes of timber from Norway and the Baltic, but when drawing more than fourteen feet of water, they are obliged to discharge part of their lading before they can enter the harbour. The number of vessels belonging to the port is eleven, of the aggregate burthen of 566 tons. In 1848, upwards of 200 vessels arrived in the harbour; and the revenues arising from shore-dues, levied by authority of the magistrates, have averaged, during the last few years, about £175 per annum. The harbour is formed chiefly by the Kinness rivulet, and is difficult of access; it was deepened in 1836, has since been improved by the erection of a new quay on the west side, and at spring tides can receive vessels of 300 tons. The estuary of the river Eden, on the northern confines of the parish, is navigable when the tide is nearly full. There are fourteen boats employed in the fisheries off the coast: the fish usually taken are, haddock, cod, ling, skate, halibut, and flounders, the produce of which, after supplying the home markets, is sent to Cupar; and during the season, the greater part of the boats are employed in the herring-fishery off the coast of Caithness. In the Eden, as far as the tide extends, is a salmon-fishery; but the produce is inconsiderable. The corn-market is held weekly on Monday, and is well supplied: a weekly market is also held for poultry, butter, eggs, and provisions of all kinds. There are fairs on the second Thursday in April, the 1st of August, and the 30th of November (all O. S.): the first, anciently called the Senzie Fair, was formerly resorted to by merchants from various foreign ports; the August fair is generally very large, and is much resorted to for the hiring of farm-servants, as well as for general business. The post-office has a good delivery; and communication is maintained by good roads, and by the St. Andrew's branch of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. There are branches in the city of the Bank of Scotland, the Clydesdale Banking Company, and the Edinburgh and Leith Bank.

The city received its first charter of incorporation from David I. in 1140, erecting it into a ROYAL BURGH. Under this charter, confirmed by Malcolm IV. in 1153, the government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twenty-two councillors. There are seven incorporated guilds, viz., the smiths, wrights, bakers, shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and butchers, into one of which an individual must be admitted, previously to his becoming a burgess qualified to carry on trade; the fees vary from £45 to £15 for strangers, from £20 to £12 for apprentices, and from £2. 10. to £1 for sons of freemen. The magistrates exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction within the burgh, the former to any amount, but the latter confined chiefly to petty offences. They accordingly hold courts for the recovery of small debts on the first Monday in every month, and a bailie-court twice a week: in the former, the number of cases has greatly diminished since the establishment of the sheriff's small-debt court. A dean-of-guild court is held occasionally. This city, with the burghs of Anstruther Easter and Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, returns a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters in St. Andrew's is about 280. The town-hall, an ancient building situated in Market-street, has been enlarged and repaired; and the gaol, which is chiefly for the temporary confinement of petty delinquents, is under good regulations.

The PARISH is bounded on the east by the German Ocean, and is about ten miles in length and two miles in extreme breadth, comprising 10,300 acres, of which 9840 are arable, 345 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. Its surface is generally level, except towards the east, where the hills of Balrymont have an elevation of 370 feet, and towards the west, in which direction the hill of Clatto rises to the height of 548 feet above the sea. The coast is about six miles in extent, and is bounded in some parts with rocks, of which the Maiden rock and those of Kinkell and Buddo are the most conspicuous. About a mile from the town is the cave of Kinkell, about eighty feet in length and twenty-five feet wide; the roof, apparently of one entire stone, is about eleven feet in height, but inclining so much towards the east as to form an angle with the floor, which on the west side, about forty feet from the entrance, is covered with plants whose growth is promoted by water constantly trickling from the roof. The principal river is the Eden, over which is an ancient bridge of six arches, called the Gair or Guard bridge, built by Bishop Wardlaw, and wide enough only for one carriage to pass. There are also two small rivulets, of which the larger, after a course of nearly five miles, having turned several corn-mills, flows into the harbour, cm the south-east; and the other falls into the sea at the north-west of the city. The soil is mostly fertile, and the lands are generally better adapted for tillage than for pasture, producing abundant crops of grain of all kinds; the system of agriculture is improved, and many acres of land near the mouth of the Eden have been protected from inundation by embankment. The cattle, which were all of the Fifeshire breed, have been mixed with various others of recent introduction; and the sheep, the number of which has been for some time gradually increasing, are principally of the Highland and Cheviot breeds. The chief substrata are, sandstone, in which are found thin seams of coal; slate clay; and clay ironstone: the sandstone is of a grey colour, very durable, and of good quality for building. The plantations are mainly around the houses of the landed proprietors, and in a thriving state; they mostly consist of ash, oak, elm, beech, plane, and larch, with some Scotch firs, which are chiefly on the poorer soils. The annual value of real property in the parish is £26,834.

For ECCLESIASTICAL purposes the parish is within the bounds of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife. The living is collegiate, consisting of two charges, of which the first is in the patronage of the Crown, and the second in that of the Magistrates and Council of the city. The minister of the first charge has a stipend of £439. 9. 4., with a glebe valued at £23 per annum; and the minister of the second charge has £171. 18. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16. 15. per annum. They officiate in the parish church and St. Mary's church, in the morning and afternoon alternately. The parish church, originally erected by Bishop Turgot, about the commencement of the twelfth century, anciently contained numerous chapels, which were suppressed at the Reformation: after the destruction of the cathedral, it was substituted as the cathedral of the archbishops of St. Andrew's. It was rebuilt in 1798, is a spacious structure with a tower and spire, and contains about 2200 sittings. In the great aisle is a splendid monument of white marble, erected to the memory of Archbishop Sharpe, by his son, Sir William Sharpe, in 1679. An episcopal chapel was built in 1825, at a cost of £1400; there are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Presbyterian Synod, Independents, and Baptists.

Among the monuments of antiquity with which the city and its environs abound, are the remains of the church of St. Regulus, which is supposed by some to be the original structure erected by Hergustus, King of the Picts, on his conversion to Christianity. Others refer the remains to the seventh or eighth century, but they are rather to be assigned to the twelfth, when the building is on good grounds supposed to have been raised by the zeal of Bishop Robert. They stand thirty-five yards south-east of the cathedral, and consist chiefly of the tower, 108 feet high and twenty feet square at the base, formerly (though not, perhaps, originally) surmounted by a spire; and the eastern portion of the church, thirty-one feet in length and twenty-five feet wide, having two windows on the north and two on the south side. Since the decay of the spire, the tower has been roofed with a platform of lead, to which there is an ascent by a spiral staircase within. On the east face of the tower are traces of its having been joined by three several roofs of different heights, with which the adjoining church was covered either at its erection or at three various times; and from the summit is obtained an extensive prospect over the bay and the adjacent country. The ancient Cathedral, completed in 1318, was a magnificent cruciform structure, 375 feet in length, 180 feet across the transepts, and seventy-two feet in mean breadth, with a lofty central tower, of which nothing now remains but the bases of the columns whereon it was supported. It had also two turrets at the western, two at the eastern, extremity, and one at the end of the south transept, each 100 feet in height. Of this splendid structure, which was destroyed at the Reformation, only the eastern gable with its turrets, one of the turrets at the west, and portions of the walls, are now remaining; the style of architecture is partly Norman, and partly of the early and later English, which latter is more prominent in the western portion of the building, from the greater richness of detail. The interior has been cleared, by order of Her Majesty's exchequer, from the accumulated heaps of rubbish with which it was for years obscured; and such repairs have been made as were requisite for the preservation of the remains. Within the area of the cathedral precincts, which occupy a space of about eighteen acres, are also some portions of the famous Priory, or Augustine monastery, founded by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, and other monastic buildings, in a state of irretrievable decay. The whole of the ecclesiastical remains above described were inclosed by a wall erected by Prior Hepburn, part of which is now destroyed: it is almost a mile in length, about twenty feet in height, and four feet thick, defended by thirteen turrets at irregular distances, and having three gateways.

To the north-west of the Cathedral, on an eminence overlooking the sea, are the remains of the Castle, rebuilt by Bishop Trail about the close of the fourteenth century. After the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546, it was besieged and destroyed, but was subsequently rebuilt by Archbishop Hamilton, and continued to be the residence of the prelates till the death of Adamson in 1591, after which period it was suffered to fall into decay. The only remains are part of the south side of the quadrangle, with a handsome square tower, and a few other fragments. The ancient convent of Franciscan friars was demolished at the Reformation, and the site is now occupied by a part of Bell-street; and the Dominican convent founded in 1274 shared the same fate, with the exception of its chapel, a beautiful specimen of the early English style, within the grounds of Madras College, and for the preservation of which Dr. Bell, the founder, made due provision. On an eminence to the west of the harbour are the ruins of the Kirkheuch, a collegiate establishment for a provost and ten prebendaries, originally a Culdee college, said by Fordun to have been erected by Constantine II. in the ninth century, and of which Constantine III., after resigning his crown, became abbot. -See Leonard's, St.

Transcribed from A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, 1851 by Samuel Lewis


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