Suffolk, England

Description

Suffolk, a maritime county, bounded on the N by Norfolk, on the E by the German Ocean, on the S by Essex, and on the W by Cambridgeshire. Its boundary line, along most of the N, is the rivers Little Ouse and Waveney; along most of the S, the river Stour; along part of the W, the river Lark. Its greatest length from E to W is about 50 miles, its greatest breadth from N to S is 30 miles, its length of coast is 50 miles, and its circuit is about 212 miles. The area of the ancient county is 952,709 statute acres. The administrative county, which includes the civil parishes of Ballingdon, Haverhill, and part of Bulmer in Essex, and the parish of All Saints, Newmarket, in Cambridgeshire, and which loses parts of the civil parishes of Gorleston, Great Yarmouth, and St Cuthbert and St Mary, Thetford, in Norfolk, has an area of 947,724 statute acres; population of the ancient county, 371,235; of the administrative county, 361,790. The coast consists largely of crag and clay cliffs, with fine views. The interior is mainly level, has few considerable elevations, and rises in the extreme NW into a chalk ridge. The chief streams, besides those on the boundaries, are the Blythe, the Alde, the Deben, the Gipping, the Orwell, and the Bret. Lower eocene rocks, chiefly London clay, form a small tract in the S, to the E and SE of Sudbury, another small tract around Saxmundham, and a narrow belt along the coast to the S of Aldborough; upper tertiary rocks, chiefly crag, form a considerable belt on the seaboard, all to the S of Lowestoft; and upper chalk rocks form all the rest of the area. Brick clay and chalk are the only minerals of any note. The soils are very various, and pass from the heaviest clay, through strong fertile loams, to the lightest sand. Agriculture is advanced and skilful. The long fallow for barley is practised on the clay lands, and the four-course shift is followed for turnip lands. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats, rye, pulse, buckwheat, turnips, carrots, tares, cole-seed, clover, and sainfoin, and minor crops are chicory, hemp, and hops. Farms are large, but many estates are small, and leases from seven to fourteen years are common. The cows are a light red polled breed and rich milkers. The sheep are chiefly of the Norfolk and Southdown breeds.

The horses are chiefly "the Suffolk punches," well adapted to farm work. The manufactures include cotton, silk, velvet, linen, woollen, horse-hair, paper, cocoa-nut matting, chemical manures, agricultural implements, railway plant (at Ipswich), gun-cotton (at Stowmarket), making on a large scale, and coach and ship building. Coprolites are found in large quantities, and gun flints for export are still manufactured at Brandon. The fisheries on the coast are important, and immense quantities of herring and mackerel are taken by the Suffolk fishermen.

Transcribed from The Comprehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales, 1894-5
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Archives and Libraries

Suffolk Record Office - Bury St Edmunds
77 Raingate Street
Bury St Edmunds
IP33 2AR
Tel: 01284 741212 (Searchroom)
Tel: 01284 741212 (Public Service Manager)
Email: bury.ro@suffolk.gov.uk

Suffolk Record Office - Ipswich
Gatacre Road
Ipswich
IP1 2LQ
Tel: 01473 584541 (Searchroom)
Tel: 01473 584560 (Public Service Manager)
Fax: 01473 584533
Email: ipswich.ro@suffolk.gov.uk

Suffolk Record Office - Lowestoft 
Clapham Road 
Lowestoft
NR32 1DR
Tel: 01502 405357 (Searchroom)
Tel: 01502 405358 (Public Service Manager)
Fax: 01502 405350
Email: lowestoft.ro@suffolk.gov.uk


Civil Registration

For general information about Civil Registration (births, marriages and deaths) see the Civil Registration page.

List of Registration Districts in Suffolk from 1837 to 1974.


Directories & Gazetteers

The Historical Directories web site have a number of directories relating to Suffolk online, including:
Kelly's, Pigot, Slater, etc.


Maps

Old map of Suffolk circa 1848 (Samuel Lewis)

Old map of Suffolk circa 1895 (Gazetteer of England and Wales)


Newspapers and Periodicals

The British Newspaper Archive have fully searchable digitised copies of the following Suffolk papers online:


Parishes and places

The towns and parishes have now been moved to a separate page.


Population

The population of Suffolk in 1801 was 214,404; 1811, 233,963; 1821, 271,541: 1831, 296,317; 1841, 315,073; 1851, 337,215; 1861, 337,070; 1871, 348,869; 1881, 356,893; 1891, 374,781; and in 1901, 373,353, consisting of 181,846 males and 191,507 females.
The population in 1901 was, East Suffolk, 255,800 - males, 124,166; females, 131,634. The population of West Suffolk was 117,553 - males, 51,680; females, 59,873.
The population in 1911 of East Suffolk (including the county borough of Ipswich), was 277,155, viz.:- males, 135,431, and females, 141,724; and West Suffolk, 116,905, viz.:- males, 57,945, and females, 58,960.